Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 79-01-6
NIOSH REL: 2 ppm 60-minute CEILING during usage as an anesthetic agent and 25 ppm TWA during all other exposures; NIOSH considers trichloroethylene to be a potential occupational carcinogen as defined by the OSHA carcinogen policy [29 CFR 1990].
Current OSHA PEL: 100 ppm TWA, 200 ppm CEILING,
300 ppm 5-minute MAXIMUM PEAK IN ANY 2 HOURS
1989 OSHA PEL: 50 ppm (270 mg/m3) TWA, 200 ppm (1,080 mg/m3) STEL
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 50 ppm (269 mg/m3) TWA, 100 ppm (537 mg/m3) STEL, A5
Description of substance: Colorless liquid (unless dyed blue) with a chloroform-like odor.
LEL (@77°F) : 8% (10% LEL(@77°F), 8,000 ppm)
Original (SCP) IDLH: 1,000 ppm
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the results of experimental 2-hour exposures by Vernon and Ferguson  of 8 young male volunteers (aged 21 to 30) to concentrations of 0, 100, 300, and 1,000 ppm. On the basis of a number of psychophysiological tests, decrements in performance were reported statistically at only 1,000 ppm. Because the exposure time was 2 hours at 1,000 ppm, a person should be able to escape within 30-minutes without injury or irreversible health effects.
Existing short-term exposure guidelines: National Research Council [NRC 1988] Emergency Exposure Guidance Levels (EEGLs):
1-hour EEGL: 200 ppm
24-hour EEGL: 10 ppm
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
Lethal concentration data:
|Species||Reference||LC50(ppm)||LCLo(ppm)||Time||Adjusted 0.5-hrLC (CF*)||Derived value|
|G. pig||Davis et al. 1959||—–||37,200||40 min||53,196 ppm (1.43)||5,320 ppm|
|Mouse||Friberg et al. 1953||8,450||—–||4 hr||114,075 ppm (13.5)||11,408 ppm|
|Cat||Lehmann et al. 1936||—–||5,952||2 hr||33,688 ppm (5.66)||3,369 ppm|
|Rat||NRC 1988||—–||8,000||4 hr||108,000 ppm (13.5)||10,800 ppm|
|Rat||Vernot et al. 1977||26,300||—–||1 hr||62,594 ppm (2.38)||6,259 ppm|
*Note: Conversion factor (CF) was determined with “n” = 0.8 [ten Berge et al. 1986].
Other human data: Exposure of eight volunteers for 2 hours to 1,000 ppm resulted in decrements in visual perception and motor skills, but 2-hour exposures to 100 and 300 ppm did not [Vernon and Ferguson 1969]. Tachypnea and ventricular arrhythmias have been equated with inhaled concentrations greater than 15,000 ppm during usage as an anesthetic [Vernon and Ferguson 1969].
|Revised IDLH: 1,000 ppm [Unchanged]Basis for revised IDLH: Based on acute inhalation toxicity data in volunteers [Vernon and Ferguson 1969], the original IDLH for trichloroethylene (1,000 ppm) is not being revised at this time. [Note: NIOSH recommends as part of its carcinogen policy that the “most protective” respirators be worn for trichloroethylene at concentrations above 25 ppm.]|
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