Antimony compounds (as Sb)

May 1994
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)

CAS number: 7440-36-0 (Metal)

NIOSH REL: 0.5 mg Sb/m3 TWA

Current OSHA PEL: 0.5 mg Sb/m3 TWA

1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.5 mg Sb/m3 TWA

Description of substance: Varies

Original (SCP) IDLH: 80 mg Sb/m3

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: AIHA [1959] reported that the severity of hazard is moderate to high for both acute and chronic exposures to antimony and its compounds. Brieger et al. [1954] noted an apparent increase in heart abnormalities in workers chronically exposed to antimony trisulfide (0.6 to 5.5 mg/m3) and demonstrated heart injury in experimental animals. The chosen IDLH is based on the report by Taylor [1966] that slightly delayed gastrointestinal disorders, including abdominal pain and persistent anorexia, were noted in workers briefly exposed to air containing up to 73 mg/m3 of antimony.

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

Lethal concentration data:

Adjusted
LC50 LCLo 0.5-hr Derived
Species Reference (ppm) (ppm) Time LC (CF) Value
Mouse Chekunova and Minkina 1987 720 mg/m3 —– ? ? ?
Rat Izmerov et al. 1982 720 mg/m3 —– 2 hr 469 mg Sb/m3 47 mg Sb/m3

Lethal dose data:

LD50 LDLo Derived
Species Reference Route (Mg/kg) (mg/kg) Adjusted LD Value
Rat Coulston and Korte 1975 oral 7,500 —– 49,000 mg Sb/m3 4,900 mg Sb/m3
Rat Smyth and Carpenter 1948 oral 20,000 —– 117,600 mg Sb/m3 11,760 mg Sb/m3
Rat Arzamastev 1964 oral 1,115 —– 3,179 mg Sb/m3 318 mg Sb/m3
G.pig Arzamastev 1964 oral 900 —– 2,566 mg Sb/m3 257 mg Sb/m3

Human data: Antimony pentachloride (SbCl5) is considered to be the most toxic of the antimony chlorides [ACGIH 1991]. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) TLV for antimony is based on an analogy to hydrogen chloride [ACGIH 1991].

References:

  1. ACGIH [1991]. Antimony and compounds. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, pp. 73-75.
  2. AIHA [1959]. Antimony and its compounds (excepting stibine). In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc Q 20:515-516.
  3. Arzamastsev EV [1964]. Experimental substantiation of the permissible concentrations of tri- and pentavalent antimony in water bodies. Gig Sanit 29(12):16-21 (translated).
  4. Brieger H, Semisch CW, Stasney J, Piatek DA [1954]. Industrial antimony poisoning. Ind Med Surg 23:521-523.
  5. Chekunova MP, Minkina MA [1987]. Toxicity of pentachlorinated antimony in a chronic experiment. Gig Tr Prof Zabol 13(10):25-29 (in Russian).
  6. Coulston F, Korte F, eds. [1975]. Heavy metal toxicity, safety and hormology. In: Environmental Quality & Safety, Supplement 1. New York, NY: Georg Thieme Publishers, pp. 1-120.
  7. Izmerov NF, Sanotsky IV, Sidorov KK [1982]. Toxicometric parameters of industrial toxic chemicals under single exposure. Moscow, Russia: Centre of International Projects, GKNT, p. 22.
  8. Smyth HF Jr, Carpenter CP [1948]. Further experience with the range finding test in the industrial toxicology laboratory. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 30(1):63-68.
  9. Taylor PJ [1966]. Acute intoxication from antimony trichloride. Br J Ind Med 23(4):318-321.
Page last reviewed: December 4, 2014