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2-Hexanone

May 1994
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)

CAS number: 591–78–6

NIOSH REL: 1 ppm (4 mg/m3) TWA

Current OSHA PEL: 100 ppm (410 mg/m3) TWA

1989 OSHA PEL: 5 ppm (20 mg/m3) TWA

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 5 ppm (20 mg/m3) TWA

Description of Substance: Colorless liquid with an acetone-like odor.

LEL:. . Unknown

Original (SCP) IDLH: 5,000 ppm

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the statements by AIHA [1968] that guinea pigs exposed to 6,000 ppm showed signs of beginning narcosis at 30 minutes and deep anesthesia at the end of 1 hour; death did not occur for 6.5 hours at this concentration [Specht et al. 1940]. Also, AIHA [1968] reported that 8,000 ppm killed all rats during a 4-hour exposure [Smyth et al. 1954]. [Note: For “convenience”, an IDLH of 5,000 ppm (50 × the OSHA PEL) was originally chosen rather than 6,000 ppm.]

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

Lethal concentration data:

Species Reference LC50(ppm) LCLo(ppm) Time Adjusted 0.5-hrLC (CF) Derivedvalue
RatG. pig

Rat

NPIRI 1974Schrenk et al. 1936

Smyth et al. 1954

8,000—–

LC100: 8,000

—–20,000

—–

4 hr70 min

4 hr

16,000 ppm (2.0)26,600 ppm (1.33)

16,000 ppm (2.0)

1,600 ppm2,600 ppm

1,600 ppm

 

Lethal dose data:

Species Reference Route LD50(mg/kg) LDLo(mg/kg) Adjusted LD Derived value
G. pigRat

Mouse

Schrenk et al. 1936Smyth et al. 1954

Tanii et al. 1936

oraloral

oral

2,590—–

2,430

—–914

—–

4,358 ppm1,538 ppm

4,089 ppm

436 ppm154 ppm

409 ppm

 

Other animal data: Narcosis occurs in guinea pigs after 30 minutes of exposure to 20,000 ppm [Schrenk et al. 1936].

Human data: Volunteers exposed to 1,000 ppm reported a strong odor and transient, moderate eye and nasal irritation [DiVencenzo et al. 1978].

Revised IDLH: 1,600 ppmBasis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for 2-hexanone is 1,600 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [DiVencenzo et al. 1978] and animals [NPIRI 1974; Smyth et al. 1954]. This may be a conservative value due to the lack of relevant acute toxicity data for workers exposed to concentrations above 1,000 ppm.

 

REFERENCES:

1. AIHA [1968]. 2-Hexanone. In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 29:618-620.

2. DiVencenzo GD, Hamilton ML, Kaplan CJ, et al. [1978]. Studies on the respiratory uptake and excretion and the skin absorption of methyl n-butyl ketone in humans and dogs. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 44:593-604.

3. NPIRI [1974]. Raw materials data handbook, physical and chemical properties, fire hazard and health hazard data. Vol. 1. Organic solvents. Bethlehem, PA: National Printing Ink Research Institute, p. 78.

4. Schrenk HH, Yant WP, Patty FA [1936]. Acute response of guinea pigs to vapors of some noncommercial organic compounds. X. Hexanone (methyl butyl ketone). Public Health Rep 51:624-631.

5. Smyth HF Jr, Carpenter CP, Weil CS, Pozzani UC [1954]. Range-finding toxicity data: list V. AMA Arch Ind Hyg Occup Med 10:61-68.

6. Specht H, Miller JW, Valaer PJ, Sayers RR [1940]. Acute response of guinea pigs to the inhalation of ketone vapors. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Federal Security Agency, U.S. Public Health Service, National Institute of Health Bulletin No, 176, pp. 1-66.

7. Tanii H, Tsuji H, Hashimoto K [1936]. Structure-toxicity relationship of monoketones. Toxicol Lett 30:13-17.

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