Ferrovanadium dust

May 1994
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)

CAS number: 12604–58–9

NIOSH REL: 1 mg/m3 TWA, 3 mg/m3 STEL

Current OSHA PEL: 1 mg/m3 TWA

1989 OSHA PEL: 1 mg/m3 TWA, 3 mg/m3 STEL

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 1 mg/m3 TWA, 3 mg/m3 STEL

Description of Substance: Dark, odorless particulate dispersed in air.

LEL: . . . Solid

Original (SCP) IDLH*: No Evidence [*Note: “Effective” IDLH = 500 mg/m3 — see discussion below.]

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The available toxicological data contain no evidence of an IDLH for ferrovanadium dust. ACGIH [1971] reported that no acute intoxication occurred in animals exposed at concentrations as high as 10,000 mg/m3 [Roshchin 1952]. Therefore, for this draft technical standard, respirators have been selected on the basis of the assigned protection factor afforded by each device up to 500 × the OSHA PEL of 1 mg/m3 (i.e., 500 mg/m3); only the “most protective” respirators are permitted for concentrations exceeding 500 mg/m3.

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed


Animal data: No acute intoxication occurred in animals exposed to concentrations as high as 10,000 mg/m3; serious pathologic changes occurred only at concentrations ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 mg/m3 in 1-hour exposures on alternate days for 2 months [Roshchin 1952]. It was also reported that exposure of rats to 40 to 80 mg/m3 for 2 months caused bronchitis, interstitial sclerosis, and perivascular edema [Clayton and Clayton 1981].

Human data: Systemic effects have not been reported from industrial exposure [Proctor et al. 1988].

Revised IDLH: 500 mg/m3

Basis for revised IDLH: The available toxicological data contain no evidence that an acute exposure to a high concentration of ferrovanadium dust would impede escape or cause any irreversible health effects within 30 minutes. However, the revised IDLH for ferrovanadium dust is 500 mg/m3 based on being 500 times the NIOSH REL of 1 mg/m3 (500 is an assigned protection factor for respirators and was used arbitrarily during the Standards Completion Program for deciding when the "most protective" respirators should be used for particulates).



1. ACGIH [1971]. Ferrovanadium. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, p. 114.

2. Clayton GD, Clayton FE, eds. [1981]. Patty’s industrial hygiene and toxicology. 3rd rev. ed. Vol. 2A. Toxicology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. 2020.

3. Proctor NH, Hughes, JP, Fischman ML [1988]. Chemical hazards of the workplace. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott Company, pp. 257-258.

4. Roshchin IV [1952]. Hygienic description of production vanadium aerosol. Gig Sanit 11:49-53 (translated).

Page last reviewed: December 4, 2014