Isoamyl alcohol (primary & secondary)
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 123-51-3 (primary), 528–75–4 (secondary)
NIOSH REL: 100 ppm (360 mg/m3) TWA, 125 ppm (450 mg/m3) STEL
Current OSHA PEL: 100 ppm (360 mg/m3) TWA
1989 OSHA PEL: 100 ppm (360 mg/m3) TWA, 125 ppm (450 mg/m3) STEL
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 100 ppm (361 mg/m3) TWA, 125 ppm (452 mg/m3) STEL
Description of substance: Colorless liquids with a disagreeable odor.
LEL(primary): 1.2% (10% LEL, 1,200 ppm)
LEL (secondary): Unknown
Original (SCP) IDLH: 10,000 ppm [LEL]
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the lower explosive limit (LEL) of 12,000 ppm and the statement in Patty  attributed to Smyth  that rats survived 8,000 ppm.
Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
Lethal dose data:
|Species||Reference||Route||LD50(mg/kg)||LDLo(mg/kg)||Adjusted LD||Derived value|
|RabbitRat||Munch 1972Purchase 1969||oraloral||3,4381,300||———-||6,557 ppm2,480 ppm||656 ppm248 ppm|
Other animal data: RD50 (mouse), 4,452 ppm [Alarie 1981].
Human data: An oral dose of 24.3 grams has been lethal for adults [Gosselin et al. 1984]. [Note: An oral dose of 24.3 grams is equivalent to a worker being exposed to 4,000 ppm for 30 minutes, assuming a breathing rate of 50 liters per minute and 100% absorption.]
|Revised IDLH: 500 ppmBasis for revised IDLH: No inhalation toxicity data are available on which to base an IDLH for isoamyl alcohol. Therefore, the revised IDLH for isoamyl alcohol (primary & secondary) is 500 ppm based on acute oral toxicity data in humans [Gosselin et al. 1984] and animals [Munch 1972]. This may be a conservative value due to the lack of relevant acute inhalation toxicity data for workers.|
1. Alarie Y . Dose-response analysis in animal studies: prediction of human responses. Environ Health Perspect 42:9-13.
2. Gosselin RE, Smith RP, Hodge HC . Clinical toxicology of commercial products. 5th ed. Section II. Ingredients Index. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins Company, p. 175.
3. Munch JC . Aliphatic alcohols and alkyl esters: narcotic and lethal potencies to tadpoles and to rabbits. Ind Med Surg 41:31-33.
4. Patty FA, ed. . Industrial hygiene and toxicology. 2nd rev. ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. New York, NY: Interscience Publishers, Inc., p. 1454.
5. Purchase IFH . Studies in kaffircorn malting and brewing. XXII. The acute toxicity of some fusel oils found in Bantu beer. S Afr Med J 43:795-798.
6. Smyth HF Jr . Improved communication: hygienic standards for daily inhalation. Am Ind Hyg Assoc Q 17(2):129-185.