Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 108–20–3
NIOSH REL: 500 ppm (2,100 mg/m3) TWA
Current OSHA PEL: 500 ppm (2,100 mg/m3) TWA
1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 250 ppm (1,040 mg/m3) TWA, 310 ppm (1,300 mg/m3) STEL
Description of substance: Colorless liquid with a sharp, sweet, ether-like odor.
LEL: . . 1.4% (10% LEL, 1,400 ppm)
Original (SCP) IDLH: 10,000 ppm
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the UCC  report that breathing the vapors in a state approaching saturation in room air killed all rats in a 10-minute exposure. [Note: Based on a vapor pressure of 119 mmHg [Patty 1963], the saturated concentration of isopropyl ether in air at 20°C is about 157,000 ppm.] Breathing 8,000 ppm was not fatal after a 4-hour exposure, but 16,000 ppm killed 6 of 6 animals exposed for the same period of time [UCC 1968].
Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
Lethal concentration data:
|Rat||Pavlova et al. 1963||38,138||-----||?||?||?|
|Rabbit||Pavlova et al. 1963||30,840||-----||?||?||?|
|Rabbit||Pavlova et al. 1963||28,486||-----||?||?||?|
|Rat||UCC 1968||LC100: 157,000||-----||10 min||105,190 ppm (0.67)||10,519 ppm|
|Mammal||UCC 1968||LC100: 16,000||-----||4 hr||32,000 ppm (2.0)||3,200 ppm|
Lethal dose data:
|Adjusted LD||Derived value|
|Rabbit||Machle et al. 1939||oral||-----||5,000-6,500||8,235-10,706 ppm||824-1,071 ppm|
|Rat||UCC 1968||oral||8,470||-----||13,951 ppm||1,395 ppm|
Other animal data: It has been reported that animals survived a 4-hour exposure to 8,000 ppm [UCC 1968].
Human data: Volunteers exposed to 800 ppm for 5 minutes reported irritation of the eyes and nose [Silverman et al. 1946].
|Revised IDLH: 1,400 ppm [LEL]
Basis for revised IDLH: Based on health considerations and acute inhalation toxicity data in animals [UCC 1968], a value of about 3,200 ppm would have been appropriate for isopropyl ether. However, the revised IDLH for isopropyl ether is 1,400 ppm based strictly on safety considerations (i.e., being 10% of the lower explosive limit of 1.4%).
1. Machle W, Scott EW, Treon J . The physiological response to isopropyl ether and to a mixture of isopropyl ether and gasoline. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 21:72-96.
2. Patty FA, ed. . Industrial hygiene and toxicology. 2nd rev. ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. New York, NY: Interscience Publishers, Inc., p. 1662.
3. Pavlova LP, Lagunova VV, Imanov RM . Determination of the maximal permissible concentration of diisopropyl ether in the air of working zone. Gig Tr Prof Zabol 19(10):55-57 (in Russian).
4. Silverman L, Schulte HF, First MW . Further studies on sensory response to certain industrial solvent vapors. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 28:262-266.
5. UCC . Toxicology studies: isopropyl ether. New York, NY: Union Carbide Corporation.