Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 107-13-1
NIOSH REL: 1 ppm TWA, 10 ppm 15-minute CEILING [skin]; NIOSH considers acrylonitrile to be a potential occupational carcinogen as defined by the OSHA carcinogen policy [29 CFR 1990].
Current OSHA PEL: 2 ppm TWA, 10 ppm 15-minute CEILING [skin]
1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 2 ppm (4.3 mg/m3) TWA [skin], A2
Description of substance: Colorless to pale-yellow liquid with an unpleasant odor.
LEL: 3.0% (10% LEL, 3,000 ppm)
Original (SCP) IDLH: 500 ppm
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the statement by Spector  about a rat 4-hour LC50 of 500 ppm [Carpenter et al. 1949].
Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA
Lethal concentration data:
|Rat||Carpenter et al. 1949||500||—–||4 hr||3,635 ppm (7.27)||364 ppm|
|Rabbit||Dudley and Neal 1942||—–||260||4 hr||1,890 ppm (7.27)||189 ppm|
|G. pig||Dudley and Neal 1942||—–||575||4 hr||4,180 ppm (7.27)||418 ppm|
|Mouse||Dudley and Neal 1942||313||—–||4 hr||2,276 ppm (7.27)||228 ppm|
|Rat||Jaeger et al. 1974||425||—–||4 hr||3,090 ppm (7.27)||309 ppm|
|Rat||Patty 1963||—–||636||4 hr||4,624 ppm (7.27)||462 ppm|
|Human||Schwanecke 1966||—–||452||1 hr||850 ppm (1.88)||85 ppm|
*Note: Conversion factor (CF) was determined with “n” = 1.1 [ten Berge et al. 1986].
Other human data: None relevant for use in determining the revised IDLH.
Revised IDLH: 85 ppm
Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for acrylonitrile is 85 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [Schwanecke 1966]. [Note: NIOSH recommends as part of its carcinogen policy that the “most protective” respirators be worn for acrylonitrile at concentrations above 1 ppm. OSHA currently requires in 29 CFR 1919.1045 that workers be provided with and required to wear and use the “most protective” respirators in concentrations exceeding 4,000 ppm (i.e., 2,000 x the PEL).]
- Carpenter CP, Smyth HF Jr, Pozzani UC . The assay of acute toxicity, and the grading and interpretation of results of 96 chemical compounds. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 31(6):344.
- Dudley HC, Neal PA . Toxicology of acrylonitrile (vinyl cyanide). A study of the acute toxicity. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 24(2):27-36.
- Jaeger RJ, Conolly RB, Murphy SD . Toxicity and biochemical changes in rats after inhalation exposure to 1.1-dichloroethylene, bromobenzene, styrene, acrylonitrile or 2-chlorobutadiene. (Abstract for Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology, Washington, DC, March 10-14, 1974.) Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 29:81.
- Patty FA, ed. . Industrial hygiene and toxicology. 2nd rev. ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. New York, NY: Interscience Publishers, Inc., pp. 2009-2011.
- Schwanecke R . Safety hazards in the handling of acrylonitrile and methacrylonitrile. Zentralbl Arbeitsmed Arbeitsschutz 16(1):1-3 (in German).
- Spector WS, ed. . Handbook of toxicology. Vol. I. Acute toxicities of solids, liquids and gases to laboratory animals. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company, pp. 322-323.
- ten Berge WF, Zwart A, Appelman LM . Concentration-time mortality response relationship of irritant and systematically acting vapours and gases. J Haz Mat 13:301-309.