When a melioidosis infection is diagnosed, the disease can be treated with the use of appropriate medication.
The type of infection and the course of treatment will impact long-term outcome. Treatment generally starts with intravenous (within a vein) antimicrobial therapy for a minimum of 2 weeks (up to 8 weeks depending on extent of infection), followed by 3–6 months of oral antimicrobial therapy.
Intravenous therapy consists of:
- Ceftazidime administered every 6–8 hours
- Meropenem administered every 8 hours
Oral antimicrobial therapy consists of:
- Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole taken every 12 hours
- Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (co-amoxiclav) taken every 8 hours
Patients with penicillin allergies should notify their doctor, who can prescribe an alternative treatment course.
In 2010, HHS convened a workshop with internationally recognized leaders in the field of Burkholderia pseudomallei and closely related species and clinicians with expertise in treating melioidosis and similar infections such as glanders. Workshop attendees recommended treatment regimens for and post-exposure prophylaxis for melioidosis and glanders. More details on the recommendations can be found in the summary, published in CDC’s Emerging Infectious Diseases journal. Additionally, further guidance on treatment duration can be found in this review.external icon