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RDC User Publications

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NHANES Genetics

National Health Care Surveys

National Health Interview Survey

National Survey of Family Growth

State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey

National Center for Health Statistics Data Linkage Activities

National Immunization Survey

The authors of the following publications accessed restricted data through the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Research Data Center. These publications are listed by NCHS survey. For more information on NCHS surveys and restricted variables accessible through the Research Data Center, see our Restricted NCHS Variables page.

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Fan JX, Wen M, Kowaleski-Jones L. Rural-urban differences in objective and subjective measures of physical activity: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006. Preventing chronic disease 2014;11:E141.

Gaskin DJ, Thorpe RJ, Jr., McGinty EE, et al. Disparities in diabetes: the nexus of race, poverty, and place. American journal of public health 2014;104(11):2147-55.

Leung CW, Laraia BA, Needham BL, et al. Soda and cell aging: associations between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and leukocyte telomere length in healthy adults from the national health and nutrition examination surveys. American journal of public health 2014;104(12):2425-31.

Needham BL, Mezuk B, Bareis N, et al. Depression, anxiety and telomere length in young adults: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Molecular psychiatry 2014.

Greer S, Schieb L, Schwartz G, et al. Association of the neighborhood retail food environment with sodium and potassium intake among US adults. Preventing chronic disease 2014;11:E70.

Richmond-Bryant J, Meng Q, Cohen J, et al. Effect measure modification of blood lead-air lead slope factors. Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology 2014.

Grossman M, Tekin E, Wada R. Food prices and body fatness among youths. Economics and human biology 2014;12:4-19.

Oster AM, Sternberg M, Nebenzahl S, et al. Prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and viral hepatitis by Urbanicity, among men who have sex with men, injection drug users, and heterosexuals in the United States. Sexually transmitted diseases 2014;41(4):272-9.

Salo PM, Arbes SJ, Jr., Jaramillo R, et al. Prevalence of allergic sensitization in the United States: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 2014.

Smith-Gagen J, Hollen R, Tashiro S, et al. The Association of State Law to Breastfeeding Practices in the US. Maternal and child health journal 2014.

Smith-Gagen J, Hollen R, Walker M, et al. Breastfeeding laws and breastfeeding practices by race and ethnicity. Women's health issues : official publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health 2014;24(1):e11-9.

Gaskin DJ, Thorpe RJ, Jr., McGinty EE, et al. Disparities in Diabetes: The Nexus of Race, Poverty, and Place. American journal of public health 2013.

Meng Q, Richmond-Bryant J, Davis JA, et al. Contribution of Particle-Size-Fractionated Airborne Lead to Blood Lead during the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2008. Environmental science & technology 2013.

Shea KM, Kammerer JS, Winston CA, et al. Estimated rate of reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection in the United States, overall and by population subgroup. American journal of epidemiology 2014;179(2):216-25.

Au LE, Rogers GT, Harris SS, et al. Associations of Vitamin D Intake with 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Overweight and Racially/Ethnically Diverse US Children. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 2013;113(11):1511-6.

Weir CH, Yeatts KB, Sarnat JA, et al. Nitrogen dioxide and allergic sensitization in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Respiratory medicine 2013.

Sanders A, Slade G. State cigarette excise tax, secondhand smoke exposure, and periodontitis in US nonsmokers. American J of Public Health. 2013; 103(4):740-746.

Trivedi T, Liu J, Probst JC, et al. The metabolic syndrome: are rural residents at increased risk? The J of Rural Health. 2013; 29:188-197.

Richmond-Bryant J, Meng Q, Davis JA, et al. A multi-level model of blood lead as a function of air lead. Science of the Total Environment. 2013; 416-462:207-213.

Brown BB, Smith KR, Hanson H, et al. Neighborhood design for walking and biking: physical activity and body mass index. Am J Prev Med 2013;44(3):231-8.

Kershaw KN, Albrecht SS, Carnethon MR. Racial and ethnic residential segregation, the neighborhood socioeconomic environment, and obesity among blacks and mexican americans. Am J Epidemiol 2013;177(4):299-309.

Le A, Judd SE, Allison DB, et al. The geographic distribution of obesity in the US and the potential regional differences in misreporting of obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2013.

Meites E, Lin C, Unger ER, et al. Can clinical tests help monitor human papillomavirus vaccine impact? Int J Cancer 2013.

Saydah S, Bullard KM, Imperatore G, et al. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Among US Adolescents and Young Adults and Risk of Early Mortality. Pediatrics 2013;131(3):e679-86.

Byrd HC, Curtin C, Anderson SE. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obesity in US males and females, age 8-15 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004. Pediatric obesity 2013.

Chen Y, Segers S, Blaser MJ. Association between Helicobacter pylori and mortality in the NHANES III study. Gut 2013.

Jerschow E, McGinn AP, de Vos G, et al. Dichlorophenol-containing pesticides and allergies: results from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 2012;109(6):420-5.

Kahn HS, Bullard KM, Barker LE, et al. Differences between Adiposity Indicators for Predicting All-Cause Mortality in a Representative Sample of United States Non-Elderly Adults. PloS one 2012;7(11):e50428.

Liu JH, Jones SJ, Sun H, et al. Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors as risk factors for childhood obesity: an urban and rural comparison. Childhood obesity 2012;8(5):440-8.

Pollack CE, Slaughter ME, Griffin BA, et al. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and coronary heart disease risk prediction in a nationally representative sample. Public health 2012;126(10):827-35.

Smit E, Crespo CJ, Michael Y, et al. The effect of vitamin D and frailty on mortality among non-institutionalized US older adults. European journal of clinical nutrition 2012;66(9):1024-8.

Baernholdt M, Yan G, Hinton I, et al. Quality of Life in Rural and Urban Adults 65 Years and Older: Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The Journal of Rural Health 2012.

Dao CN, Patel P, Overton ET, et al. Low vitamin D among HIV-infected adults: prevalence of and risk factors for low vitamin D Levels in a cohort of HIV-infected adults and comparison to prevalence among adults in the US general population. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011;52(3):396-405.

Bouchard MF, Bellinger DC, Wright RO, et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and urinary metabolites of organophosphate pesticides. Pediatrics 2010;125(6):e1270-7.

Fletcher JM, Frisvold D, Tefft N. Taxing soft drinks and restricting access to vending machines to curb child obesity. Health affairs (Project Hope) 2010;29(5):1059-66.

Bird CE, Seeman T, Escarce JJ, et al. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and biological 'wear and tear' in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Journal of epidemiology and community health 2010;64(10):860-5.

Do DP, Dubowitz T, Bird CE, et al. Neighborhood context and ethnicity differences in body mass index: a multilevel analysis using the NHANES III survey (1988-1994). Economics and human biology 2007;5(2):179-203.

Koopman RJ, Mainous AG, 3rd, Geesey ME. Rural residence and Hispanic ethnicity: doubly disadvantaged for diabetes? The Journal of rural health : official journal of the American Rural Health Association and the National Rural Health Care Association 2006;22(1):63-8.

Mainous AG, 3rd, King DE, Garr DR, et al. Race, rural residence, and control of diabetes and hypertension. Annals of family medicine 2004;2(6):563-8.

Vargas CM, Dye BA, Hayes KL. Oral health status of rural adults in the United States. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) 2002;133(12):1672-81.

NHANES Genetics

Taylor AE, Fluharty ME, Bjorngaard JH, et al. Investigating the possible causal association of smoking with depression and anxiety using Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis: the CARTA consortium. BMJ open 2014;4(10):e006141.

Villegas R, Goodloe RJ, McClellan BE, Jr., et al. Gene-carbohydrate and gene-fiber interactions and type 2 diabetes in diverse populations from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) as part of the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study. BMC genetics 2014;15:69.

Goodloe R, Brown-Gentry K, Gillani NB, et al. Lipid trait-associated genetic variation is associated with gallstone disease in the diverse Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). BMC medical genetics 2013;14(1):120.

Hernaez R, McLean J, Lazo M, et al. Association Between Variants in or Near PNPLA3, GCKR, and PPP1R3B with Ultrasound-Defined Steatosis Based on Data from the NHANES III. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013.

Pendergrass SA, Brown-Gentry K, Dudek S, et al. Phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) for detection of pleiotropy within the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Network. PLoS genetics 2013;9(1):e1003087.

Needham BL, Adler N, Gregorich S, et al. Socioeconomic status, health behavior, and leukocyte telomere length in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. Social science & medicine 2013;85:1-8.

Dumitrescu L, Goodloe R, Brown-Gentry K, et al. Serum vitamins A and E as modifiers of lipid trait genetics in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study. Human genetics 2012:1-10.

Jeff JM, Brown-Gentry K, Crawford DC. Replication and characterisation of genetic variants in the fibrinogen gene cluster with plasma fibrinogen levels and haematological traits in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Thrombosis and haemostasis 2012;107(3):458-67.

Chang MH, Yesupriya A, Ned RM, et al. Genetic variants associated with fasting blood lipids in the U.S. population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. BMC medical genetics 2010;11:62.

Scinicariello F, Yesupriya A, Chang MH, et al. Modification by ALAD of the association between blood lead and blood pressure in the U.S. population: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Environmental health perspectives 2010;118(2):259-64.

Fan AZ, Yesupriya A, Chang MH, et al. Gene polymorphisms in association with emerging cardiovascular risk markers in adult women. BMC medical genetics 2010;11:6.

Keebler ME, Sanders CL, Surti A, et al. Association of blood lipids with common DNA sequence variants at 19 genetic loci in the multiethnic United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Circulation Cardiovascular genetics 2009;2(3):238-43.

Hung AM, Crawford DC, Griffin MR, et al. CRP polymorphisms and progression of chronic kidney disease in African Americans. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN 2010;5(1):24-33.

Chu AY, Parekh RS, Astor BC, et al. Association of APOE polymorphism with chronic kidney disease in a nationally representative sample: a Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) Genetic Study. BMC medical genetics 2009;10:108.

Koontz DA, Huckins JJ, Spencer A, et al. Rapid detection of the CYP2A6*12 hybrid allele by Pyrosequencing technology. BMC medical genetics 2009;10:80.

Krieg EF, Jr., Butler MA, Chang MH, et al. Lead and cognitive function in ALAD genotypes in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Neurotoxicology and teratology 2009;31(6):364-71.

Chang MH, Lindegren ML, Butler MA, et al. Prevalence in the United States of selected candidate gene variants: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1991-1994. American journal of epidemiology 2009;169(1):54-66.

Yang QH, Botto LD, Gallagher M, et al. Prevalence and effects of gene-gene and gene-nutrient interactions on serum folate and serum total homocysteine concentrations in the United States: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey DNA Bank. The American journal of clinical nutrition 2008;88(1):232-46.

Crawford DC, Sanders CL, Qin X, et al. Genetic variation is associated with C-reactive protein levels in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Circulation 2006;114(23):2458-65.

Crawford DC, Yi Q, Smith JD, et al. Allelic spectrum of the natural variation in CRP. Human genetics 2006;119(5):496-504.


Lerner NB, Johantgen M, Trinkoff AM, et al. Are nursing home survey deficiencies higher in facilities with greater staff turnover. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 2014;15(2):102-7.

Sekhar DL, Murray-Kolb LE, Wang L, et al. Adolescent Anemia Screening During Ambulatory Pediatric Visits in the United States. Journal of community health 2014.

Han K, Trinkoff AM, Storr CL, et al. Associations between state regulations, training length, perceived quality and job satisfaction among certified nursing assistants: Cross-sectional secondary data analysis. International journal of nursing studies 2014.

Hollingsworth JM, Sakshaug JW, Zhang Y, et al. In-Office Imaging Capabilities Among Procedure-Based Specialty Practices. Surgical innovation 2013.

Will JC, Valderrama AL, Yoon PW. Preventable hospitalizations and emergency department visits for angina, United States, 1995-2010. Preventing chronic disease 2013;10:E126.

Yusuf HR, Reyes N, Zhang QC, et al. Hospitalizations of Adults≥ 60 Years of Age With Venous Thromboembolism. Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis 2013.

Berdahl CT, Vermeulen MJ, Larson DB, et al. Emergency department computed tomography utilization in the United States and Canada. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2013.

Chang J, Freed GL, Prosser LA, et al. Associations between physician financial incentives and the prescribing of anti-asthmatic medications in children in US outpatient settings. J Child Health Care 2013.

Rotman SR, Bishop TF. Proton pump inhibitor use in the u.s. Ambulatory setting, 2002-2009. PLoS One 2013;8(2):e56060.

Zickafoose JS, Clark SJ, Sakshaug JW, et al. Readiness of primary care practices for medical home certification. Pediatrics 2013;131(3):473-82.

Tillman B, Hardin-Young J, Shannon W, et al. Meeting the Need for Regenerative Therapies: Translation-Focused Analysis of U.S. Regenerative Medicine Opportunities in Cardiovascular and Peripheral Vascular Medicine Using Detailed Incidence Data. Tissue engineering Part B, Reviews 2012.

Tsai J, Grosse SD, Grant AM, et al. Correlates of in-hospital deaths among hospitalizations with pulmonary embolism: findings from the 2001-2008 National Hospital Discharge Survey. PloS one 2012;7(7):e34048.

Meyer BD, Wherry LR. Saving Teens: Using a Policy Discontinuity to Estimate the Effects of Medicaid Eligibility. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2012.

Choi J, Johantgen M. The importance of supervision in retention of CNAs. Research in nursing & health 2012;35(2):187-99.

Tsai J, Grosse SD, Grant AM, et al. Trends in in-hospital deaths among hospitalizations with pulmonary embolism. Archives of Internal Medicine 2012;172(12):960-1.

Wiener JM, Squillace MR, Anderson WL, et al. Why do they stay? Job tenure among certified nursing assistants in nursing homes. The Gerontologist 2009;49(2):198-210.

Donoghue C, Castle NG. Leadership styles of nursing home administrators and their association with staff turnover. The Gerontologist 2009;49(2):166-74.

Friedberg MW, Mehrotra A, Linder JA. Reporting hospitals' antibiotic timing in pneumonia: adverse consequences for patients? The American journal of managed care 2009;15(2):137-44.

Smith LM, Lapane KL, Fennell ML, et al. Home health agency profit orientation and risk for hospitalization: a propensity score analysis of population weighted data. Home health care services quarterly 2008;27(3):240-57.

Donoghue C, Castle NG. Organizational and environmental effects on voluntary and involuntary turnover. Health care management review 2007;32(4):360-9.

Fang MC, McCarthy EP, Singer DE. Are patients more likely to see physicians of the same sex? Recent national trends in primary care medicine. The American journal of medicine 2004;117(8):575-81.

Pearson WS, Hueston WJ. Treatment of HIV/AIDS in the nursing home: variations in rural and urban long-term care settings. Southern medical journal 2004;97(4):338-41.

National Health Interview Survey

Chang MH, Molla MT, Truman BI, et al. Differences in healthy life expectancy for the US population by sex, race/ethnicity and geographic region: 2008. Journal of public health 2014.

Dallo FJ, Kindratt TB. Disparities in Preventive Health Behaviors Among Non-Hispanic White Men: Heterogeneity Among Foreign-Born Arab and European Americans. American journal of men's health 2014.

Keet CA, McCormack MC, Pollack CE, et al. Neighborhood poverty, urban residence, race/ethnicity, and asthma: Rethinking the inner-city asthma epidemic. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

deCastro BR. Acrolein and asthma attack prevalence in a representative sample of the United States adult population 2000-2009. PloS one 2014;9(5):e96926.

Kachan D, Tannenbaum SL, Olano HA, et al. Geographical variation in health-related quality of life among older US adults, 1997-2010. Preventing chronic disease 2014;11:E110.

Long SK, Dahlen H. Expanding Coverage to Low-Income Childless Adults in Massachusetts: Implications for National Health Reform. Health services research 2014.

Brumback BA, Cai Z, Dailey AB. Methods of Estimating or Accounting for Neighborhood Associations With Health Using Complex Survey Data. American journal of epidemiology 2014.

Lu PJ, Santibanez TA, Williams WW, et al. Surveillance of influenza vaccination coverage--United States, 2007-08 through 2011-12 influenza seasons. Morbidity and mortality weekly report Surveillance summaries 2013;62(4):1-28.

Zhang X, Holt JB, Lu H, et al. Neighborhood commuting environment and obesity in the United States: An urban-rural stratified multilevel analysis. Preventive medicine 2013.

Lu PJ, Singleton JA, Euler GL, et al. Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Adult Populations in the United States, 2005-2011. American journal of epidemiology 2013.

Palmer NR, Geiger AM, Lu L, et al. Impact of rural residence on forgoing healthcare after cancer because of cost. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2013;22(10):1668-76.

Dwyer JT, Nahin RL, Rogers GT, et al. Prevalence and predictors of children's dietary supplement use: the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. American J of Clinical Nutrition. 2013; 97:1337-7.

McClure LA, Fernandez CA, Clarke TC, et al. Risky drinking in the older population: A comparison of Florida to the rest of the US. Addict Behav 2013;38(4):1894-7.

Fernandez CA, McClure LA, Leblanc WG, et al. Comparison of Florida skin cancer screening rates with those in different US regions. Southern medical journal 2012;105(10):524-9.

Stimpson JP, Pagan JA, Chen LW. Reducing racial and ethnic disparities in colorectal cancer screening is likely to require more than access to care. Health affairs (Project Hope) 2012;31(12):2747-54.

Tannenbaum SL, Kachan D, Fernandez CA, et al. State variations of chronic disease risk factors in older americans. Preventing chronic disease 2012;9:E177.

Weaver KE, Geiger AM, Lu L, et al. Rural-urban disparities in health status among US cancer survivors. Cancer 2012.

Meyer BD, Wherry LR. Saving Teens: Using a Policy Discontinuity to Estimate the Effects of Medicaid Eligibility. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2012.

White C. A comparison of two approaches to increasing access to care: expanding coverage versus increasing physician fees. Health services research 2012;47(3 Pt 1):963-83.

Long SK, Stockley K. The impacts of state health reform initiatives on adults in New York and Massachusetts. Health services research 2011;46(1 Pt 2):365-87.

Oza-Frank R, Narayan KM. Overweight and diabetes prevalence among US immigrants. American journal of public health 2010;100(4):661-8.

Coughlin TA, Long SK, Graves JA. Does managed care improve access to care for Medicaid beneficiaries with disabilities? A national study. Inquiry : a journal of medical care organization, provision and financing 2008;45(4):395-407.

Parker JD, Woodruff TJ, Akinbami LJ, et al. Linkage of the US National Health Interview Survey to air monitoring data: an evaluation of different strategies. Environmental research 2008;106(3):384-92.

Vargas CM, Dye BA, Hayes KL. Oral health status of rural adults in the United States. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) 2002;133(12):1672-81.

Legler J, Breen N, Meissner H, et al. Predicting patterns of mammography use: a geographic perspective on national needs for intervention research. Health services research 2002;37(4):929-47.

National Survey of Family Growth

Bass LE. Living in the American South and the Likelihood of Having a Tubal Sterilization. Sociological Focus 2013;46(1):47-67.

Magnusson BM, Sabik L, Chapman DA, et al. Contraceptive insurance mandates and consistent contraceptive use among privately insured women. Medical Care 2012;50(7):562-8.

Bitler M, Schmidt L. Health disparities and infertility: impacts of state-level insurance mandates. Fertility and sterility 2006;85(4):858-65.

State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey (NSCH, CSHCN, NSAP, NSAP-SN)

Ray KN, Bogen DL, Bertolet M, et al. Supply and utilization of pediatric subspecialists in the United States. Pediatrics 2014;133(6):1061-9.

Zhang, X, Onufrak S, Holt JB, et al. A multilevel approach to estimating small area childhood obesity prevalence at the census block-group level. Preventing Chronic Disease.2013;10:1-10.

Ogbuanu C, Goodman D, Kahn K, et al. Factors associated with parent report of access to care and the quality of care received by children 4 to 17 years of age in Georgia. Maternal and child health journal 2012;16 Suppl 1:S129-42.

Lau M, Lin H, Flores G. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care among U.S. Adolescents. Health services research 2012;47(5):2031-59.

Liu J, Probst JC, Martin AB, et al. Disparities in dental insurance coverage and dental care among US children: the National Survey of Children's Health. Pediatrics 2007;119 Suppl 1:S12-21.

National Center for Health Statistics Data Linkage Activities (NHANES or NHIS linked with Mortality, Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security or Air Quality Data)

Nachman KE, Parker JD. Exposures to fine particulate air pollution and respiratory outcomes in adults using two national datasets: a cross-sectional study. Environmental Health. 2012; 11:25-36.

Mainous AG, 3rd, Diaz VA, Knoll ME, et al. Transferrin Saturation and Hospital Length of Stay and Mortality in Medicare Beneficiaries. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2012.

Denney JT, Wadsworth T, Rogers RG, et al. Suicide in the City: A New Approach to Assessing the Role of Context. 2012.

Reis JP, Macera CA, Araneta MR, et al. Comparison of overall obesity and body fat distribution in predicting risk of mortality. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md) 2009;17(6):1232-9.

Ruhl CE, Everhart JE. Elevated serum alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase and mortality in the United States population. Gastroenterology 2009;136(2):477-85 e11.

Breslow RA, Graubard BI. Prospective study of alcohol consumption in the United States: quantity, frequency, and cause-specific mortality. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research 2008;32(3):513-21.

Enstrom JE, Breslow L. Lifestyle and reduced mortality among active California Mormons, 1980-2004. Preventive medicine 2008;46(2):133-6.

National Immunization Survey

Gilkey MB, Magnus BE, Reiter PL, et al. The Vaccination Confidence Scale: A brief measure of parents' vaccination beliefs. Vaccine 2014;32(47):6259-65.

Reiter PL, Katz ML, Paskett ED. HPV Vaccination among Adolescent Females from Appalachia: Implications for Cervical Cancer Disparities. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2012.

The findings and conclusions in any of the papers listed above are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Research Data Center, the National Center for Health Statistics, or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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