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May 1994
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)

Cresol (o, m, p isomers)

CAS numbers: 95­48­7 (o­isomer), 108­39­4 (m­isomer), 106­44­5 (p­isomer)

NIOSH REL: 2.3 ppm (10 mg/m3) TWA

Current OSHA PEL: 5 ppm (22 mg/m3) TWA [skin]

1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL

1993­1994 ACGIH TLV: 5 ppm (22 mg/m3) TWA [skin]

Description of Substance: White crystals with a sweet, tarry odor.

LEL(@300 F): 1.4% (10% LEL(@300 F), 1,400 ppm)

Original (SCP) IDLH: 250 ppm

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The only quantitative acute inhalation toxicity data available are those cited by Patty [1963]. Patty [1963] reported that rats exposed for 8 hours to a saturated concentration of cresol vapors survived the exposure [Smyth 1956]. The chosen IDLH is based on the isomer with the highest vapor pressure, that of o­cresol, which yields a saturated concentration of 323 ppm at 25 C. The chosen IDLH appears to be conservative because no rats died as a result of this exposure which was for 8 hours. Based on the rat oral LD50 of 207 mg/kg for p­cresol [Biofax 1969 cited by NIOSH 1976], an IDLH of 250 ppm is reasonable.

Short­term exposure guidelines: None developed

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

Lethal dose data:

 


Species

Reference

Route
LD50

(mg/kg)

LDLo

(mg/kg)


Adjusted LD
Derived

value

Cresols
Rat
Mouse
Mouse

Back et al. 1972
Back et al. 1972
Kuroki et al. 1982

oral
oral
oral

1,454
861
760

-----
-----
-----

2,262 ppm
1,339 ppm
1,182 ppm

226 ppm
134 ppm
118 ppm
o-Cresol
Rat
Rat
Mouse

Biofax 1969b
Deichmann and Witherup 1944
Gig Tr Prof Zabol 1974

oral
oral
oral

121
1,350
344

-----
-----
-----

188 ppm
2,100 ppm
535 ppm

19 ppm
210 ppm
54 ppm
m-Cresol
Rat
Rat
Mouse

Biofax 1969a
Deichmann and Witherup 1944
Gig Tr Prof Zabol 1974

oral
oral
oral

242
2,020
828

-----
-----
-----

376 ppm
3,142 ppm
1,288 ppm

38 ppm
314 ppm
129 ppm
p-Cresol
Rat
Rat
Mouse

Biofax 1969c
Deichmann and Witherup 1944
Gig Tr Prof Zabol 1974

oral
oral
oral

207
1,800
344

-----
-----
-----

322 ppm
2,800 ppm
535 ppm

32 ppm
280 ppm
54 ppm


Other animal data: Rats exposed to a saturated concentration of cresol vapors (about 150 to 380 ppm) survived the exposure for 8 hours [Smyth 1956].

Human data: None relevant for use in determining the revised IDLH.

 

Revised IDLH: 250 ppm [Unchanged]

Basis for revised IDLH: Based on acute inhalation toxicity data in animals [Smyth 1956], the original IDLH for cresol (250 ppm) is not being revised at this time.


REFERENCES:

1. Back KC, Thomas AA, MacEwen JD [1972]. Reclassification of materials listed as transportation health hazards. Wright­Patterson Air Force Base, OH: 6570th Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Report No. TSA­20­72­3, pp. A­330 to A­331.

2. Biofax [1969a]. Data sheet 3­5/69. Northbrook, IL: Biofax Industrial Bio­Test Laboratories, Inc.

3. Biofax [1969b]. Data sheet 4­5/69. Northbrook, IL: Biofax Industrial Bio­Test Laboratories, Inc.

4. Biofax [1969c]. Data sheet 5­5/69. Northbrook, IL: Biofax Industrial Bio­Test Laboratories, Inc.

5. Deichmann WB, Witherup S [1944]. Phenol Studies. VI. The acute and comparative toxicity of phenol and o-, m-, and p­cresols for experimental animals. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 80:233­240.

6. Gig Tr Prof Zabol [1974]; 18(2):58­59 (in Russian).

7. Kuroki K, Murakami Y, Osumi T, Kimura T [1982]. A study on acute toxicity of formalin­guaiacol. Kyushu Shika Gakkai Zasshi (Journal of the Kyushu Dental Society) 36(6):932­939 (in Japanese).

8. NIOSH [1976]. GO64750. p­Cresol. In: Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances, 1976 ed. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 76­191, p. 353.

9. Patty FA, ed. [1963]. Industrial hygiene and toxicology. 2nd rev. ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. New York, NY: Interscience Publishers, Inc., p. 1390.

10. Smyth HF Jr [1956]. Improved communication: hygienic standards for daily inhalation. Am Ind Hyg Assoc Q 17(2):129­185.

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