Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 98–01–1
NIOSH REL: The 1989 OSHA PEL may not be protective to workers.
Current OSHA PEL: 5 ppm (20 mg/m3) TWA [skin]
1989 OSHA PEL: 2 ppm (8 mg/m3) TWA [skin]
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 2 ppm (7.9 mg/m3) TWA [skin]
Description of Substance: Colorless to amber liquid with an almond-like odor.
LEL: . . 2.1% (10% LEL, 2,100 ppm)
Original (SCP) IDLH: 250 ppm
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the statement that 260 ppm was the lethal concentration for rats, but caused no deaths in mice or rabbits [Quaker Oats cited by AIHA 1965].
Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA
Lethal concentration data:
|Deichmann and Gerarde 1969|
Deichmann and Gerarde 1969
Terrill et al. 1989
Terrill et al. 1989
|851 ppm (2.3) |
851 ppm (2.3)
403 ppm (2.3)
1,296 ppm (1.25)
|85 ppm |
Other animal data: It has been stated that 260 ppm (duration of exposure undefined) caused no deaths in mice or rabbits [Quaker].
Human data: Widespread eye and respiratory tract irritation has been noted in workers exposed to concentrations ranging from 5 to 16 ppm [Apol and Lucas 1975]. Headaches, itching of the throat, and red and weeping eyes have occurred at concentrations ranging from 1.9 to 14 ppm [Korenman and Resnik 1930].
|Revised IDLH: 100 ppm
Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for furfural is 100 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [Apol and Lucas 1975; Korenman and Resnik 1930] and animals [Deichmann and Gerarde 1969; Terrill et al. 1989]. This may be a conservative value due to the lack of relevant acute toxicity data for workers exposed to concentrations above 16 ppm.
1. AIHA . Furfural. In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 26:196-199.
2. Apol AG, Lucas JB . Health hazard evaluation, Pacific Grinding Wheel Co., Maysville, WA. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH Report No. HHE 73-18-171, NTIS No. 246-444.
3. Deichmann WB, Gerarde HW . Furfural (2-furaldehyde; pyromucic aldehyde; artificial oil of ants). In: Toxicology of drugs and chemicals. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., pp. 279-280.
4. Korenman IM, Resnik IB . Furfural as an industrial poison and its determination in the air. Arch Hyg 104:344-357 (in German). [From ACGIH . Furfural. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, pp. 694-695.]
5. Quaker Oats [?]. Physiological data on QO furfural. Chicago, IL: Quaker Oats Company, Chemicals Division. [From AIHA . Furfural. In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 26:196-199.]
6. Terrill JB, Van Horn WE, Robinson D, Thomas DL . Acute
inhalation toxicity of furan, 2-methyl furan, furfuryl alcohol,
and furfural in the rat. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 50:A359-A361.
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