Skip directly to local search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options
CDC Home
May 1994
 

Documentation for Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentrations (IDLHs)


Furfuryl alcohol

CAS number: 98–00–0

NIOSH REL: 10 ppm (40 mg/m3) TWA, 15 ppm (60 mg/m3) STEL [skin]

Current OSHA PEL: 50 ppm (200 mg/m3) TWA

1989 OSHA PEL: 10 ppm (40 mg/m3) TWA, 15 ppm (60 mg/m3) STEL [skin]

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 10 ppm (40 mg/m3) TWA, 15 ppm (60 mg/m3) STEL [skin]

Description of Substance: Colorless to amber liquid with a faint, burning odor.

LEL: . . 1.8% (10% LEL, 1,800 ppm)

Original (SCP) IDLH: 250 ppm

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the rat 4-hour LC50 of 233 ppm of a furfuryl alcohol, hydrazine, and aniline mixture [Jacobson et al. 1958]. Also, Deichmann and Gerarde [1969] stated that 8% mortality resulted from a 6-hour exposure of rats to 47 ppm furfuryl alcohol and 100% mortality resulted at 243 ppm.

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

Lethal concentration data:

 


Species

Reference
LC50

(ppm)

LCLo

(ppm)


Time
Adjusted 0.5-hr

LC (CF)

Derived

value

Rat

Rat

Rat

Rat

Mouse

Mouse

Rat

Rat

Comstock and Oberst 1952

Comstock and Oberst 1952

Deichmann and Gerarde 1969

Deichmann and Gerarde 1969

Deichmann and Gerarde 1969

NIOSH 1979

NIOSH 1979

Terrill et al. 1989

LC16: 700

LC25: 700

LC8: 47

LC100: 243

-----

397

85

592

-----

-----

-----

-----

597

-----

-----

-----

4 hr

8 hr

6 hr

6 hr

6 hr

6 hr

6 hr

1 hr

1,400 ppm (2.0)

1,750 ppm (2.5)

108 ppm (2.3)

559 ppm (2.3)

1,373 ppm (2.3)

913 ppm (2.3)

196 ppm (2.3)

740 ppm (1.25)

140 ppm

175 ppm

11 ppm

56 ppm

137 ppm

91 ppm

20 ppm

74 ppm


Other animal data: Exposure of rats to 100 ppm for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 16 weeks resulted in decreased weight gain and biochemical changes in the brain (i.e., increased cerebral glial acid-proteinase and phosphohydrase activity) [Savolainen and Pfaffli 1983].

Human data: No discomfort was reported from concentrations up to 10.8 ppm for 15 minutes, but severe lacrimation occurred at 15.8 ppm [Apol 1973]. It has also been reported that there is no hazard from exposures up to 16 ppm [Burton and Rivera 1972].

 

Revised IDLH: 75 ppm

Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH is 75 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in animals [Terrill et al. 1989].


REFERENCES:

1. Apol AG [1973]. Health hazard evaluation, Western Foundry Co., Tigard, OR. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH Report No. HHE 72-116-85.

2. Burton DJ, Rivera RO [1972]. Health hazard evaluation, May Foundry, Salt Lake City, UT: Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH Report No. HHE 2-10-15.

3. Comstock CC, Oberst FW [1952]. Inhalation toxicity of aniline, furfural alcohol, and their mixtures in rats and mice. U.S. Army Chemical Center, MD: Chemical Corps, Medical Laboratories, Research Report No. 139.

4. Deichmann WB, Gerarde HW [1969]. Furfuryl alcohol. In: Toxicology of drugs and chemicals. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., pp. 280-281.

5. Jacobson KH, Rinehart WE, Wheelwright HJ Jr, Ross MA, Papin JL, Daly RC, Greene EA, Groff WA [1958]. The toxicology of an aniline-furfuryl alcohol-hydrazine vapor mixture. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 19:91-100.

6. NIOSH [1979]. Criteria for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to furfuryl alcohol. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 79-133.

7. Savolainen H, Pfaffli P [1983]. Neurotoxicity of furfuryl alcohol vapor in prolonged inhalation exposure. Environ Res 31(2):420-427.

8. Terrill JB, Van Horn WE, Robinson D, Thomas DL [1989]. Acute toxicity of furan, 2-methyl furan, furfuryl alcohol, and furfural in the rat. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 50:A359-A361.

 
Contact Us:
USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO