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May 1994
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)

Diphenyl

CAS number: 92–52–4

NIOSH REL: 1 mg/m3 (0.2 ppm) TWA

Current OSHA PEL: 1 mg/m3 (0.2 ppm) TWA

1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 1.3 mg/m3 (0.2 ppm) TWA

Description of Substance: Colorless to pale-yellow solid with a pleasant, characteristic odor.

LEL(@232 F): 0.6% (10% LEL(@232 F), 5,000 mg/m3)

Original (SCP) IDLH: 300 mg/m3

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the following statements by Hakkinen et al. [1973]: "one fatal case of liver necrosis with some areas of cirrhosis occurred in a worker who had been regularly exposed to concentrations of vapor of approximately 100 mg/m3. Other workers with repeated exposure to concentrations greater than 5 mg/m3 had gastrointestinal symptoms as well as polyneuritic complaints, with abnormalities of both the electroencephalogram and electromyogram. Some showed hepatic damage detected by liver function tests and biopsy."

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

Lethal dose data:

 


Species

Reference

Route
LD50

(mg/kg)

LDLo

(mg/kg)


Adjusted LD

Derived value
Rabbit

Rat

Mouse

Rat

Deichmann et al. 1947

Deichmann et al. 1947

Isshiki et al. 1983

Monsanto 1986

oral

oral

oral

oral

2,400

3,280

1,900

2,400

-----

-----

-----

-----

16,800 mg/m3

22,960 mg/m3

13,300 mg/m3

16,800 mg/m3

1,680 mg/m3

2,296 mg/m3

1,330 mg/m3

1,680 mg/m3


Human data: It has been reported that one fatal case of liver necrosis with some areas of cirrhosis occurred in a worker who had been regularly exposed to vapor concentrations of approximately 100 mg/m3 [Hakkinen et al. 1973]. Other workers with repeated exposure to concentrations greater than 5 mg/m3 had gastrointestinal symptoms as well as polyneuritic complaints, with abnormalities of both the electroencephalogram and electromyogram [Hakkinen et al. 1973]. Some workers showed hepatic damage detected by liver function tests and biopsy [Hakkinen et al. 1973]. Workers exposed to concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 128 mg/m3 complained of the strong odor and irritation of the throat and eyes [Hakkinen et al. 1973].

 

Revised IDLH: 100 mg/m3

Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for diphenyl is 100 mg/m3 based on acute and chronic inhalation toxicity data in workers [Hakkinen et al. 1973].


REFERENCES:

1. Deichmann WB, Kitzmiller KV, Dierker M, Witherup S [1947]. Observations on the effects of diphenyl, o- and p-aminodiphenyl, o- and p-nitrodiphenyl, and dehydroxyoctachlorodiphenyl upon experimental animals. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 29:1-3.

2. Hakkinen I, Siltanen E, Hernberg S, Seppalainen AM, Karli P, Vikkula E [1973]. Diphenyl poisoning in fruit paper production. Arch Environ Health 26:70-74.

3. Isshiki K, Miyata K, Matsui S, Tsutsumi M, Watanabe T [1983]. Effects of post-harvest fungicides and piperonyl butoxide on the acute toxicity of pesticides in mice. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi (Food Hygiene Journal) 24(3):268-274 (in Japanese).

4. Monsanto [1986]. Material safety data sheet: biphenyl (MSDS No. 000092524). St. Louis, MO: Monsanto Company, p. 3.

 
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