Skip directly to local search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options
CDC Home
May 1994
 

Documentation for Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentrations (IDLHs)


Phosphine

CAS number: 7803–51–2

NIOSH REL: 0.3 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) TWA, 1 ppm (1 mg/m3) STEL

Current OSHA PEL: 0.3 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) TWA

1989 OSHA PEL: 0.3 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) TWA, 1 ppm (1 mg/m3) STEL

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.3 ppm (0.42 mg/m3) TWA, 1 ppm (1.4 mg/m3) STEL

Description of substance: Colorless gas with a fish- or garlic-like odor.

LEL: . . 1.79% (10% LEL, 1,790 ppm)

Original (SCP) IDLH: 200 ppm

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the statement by Patty [1963] that 290 to 430 ppm is dangerous to life after 1 hour, and 100 to 200 ppm is the maximum amount for 0.5 to 1 hour [Henderson and Haggard 1943].

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:

Lethal concentration data:

 

SpeciesReferenceLC50 (ppm)LCLo (ppm)TimeAdjusted 0.5-hr LC (CF)Derived value
Mammal

Mouse

G. pig

Cat

Rabbit

Human

Rat

Flury 1928

Izmerov et al. 1982

Izmerov et al. 1982

Izmerov et al. 1982

Schulz 1890

Tab Biol Per 1933

Waritz & Brown 1975

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

11

1,000

270

100

50

2,500

1,000

-----

5 min

2 hr

4 hr

2 hr

20 min

5 min

4 hr

550 ppm (0.55)

431 ppm (1.6)

200 ppm (2.0)

80 ppm (1.6)

2,400 ppm (0.96)

550 ppm (0.55)

22 ppm (2.0)

55 ppm

43 ppm

20 ppm

8.0 ppm

240 ppm

55 ppm

2.2 ppm

Other human data: Symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, tightness of the chest, cough, headache, and dizziness have been reported in workers exposed intermittently to concentrations up to 35 ppm [Jones et al. 1964]. It has been stated that 290 to 430 ppm is dangerous to life after 1 hour, and 100 to 200 ppm is the maximum amount for 0.5 to 1 hour [Henderson and Haggard 1943].

 

Revised IDLH: 50 ppm

Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for phosphine is 50 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [Jones et al. 1964; Tab Biol Per 1933]. This may be a conservative value due to the lack of relevant acute toxicity data for workers exposed to concentrations above 35 ppm.

REFERENCES:

1. Flury F [1928]. Moderne gewerbliche vergiftungen in pharmakologisch-toxikologischer hinsicht (Pharmacological-toxicological aspects of intoxicants in modern industry). Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 138:65-82 (translated).

2. Henderson Y, Haggard HW [1943]. Noxious gases. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Reinhold Publishing Corporation, p. 243.

3. Izmerov NF, Sanotsky IV, Sidorov KK [1982]. Toxicometric parameters of industrial toxic chemicals under single exposure. Moscow, Russia: Centre of International Projects, GKNT, p. 75.

4. Jones AT, Jones RC, Longley EO [1964]. Environmental and clinical aspects of bulk wheat fumigation with aluminum phosphide. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 23:375-379.

5. Patty FA, ed. [1963]. Industrial hygiene and toxicology. 2nd rev. ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. New York, NY: Interscience Publishers, Inc., p. 884.

6. Schulz H [1890]. Uber phosphorwasserstoff. Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 27:314-335 (in German).

7. Tab Biol Per [1933]; 3:231 (in German).

8. Waritz RS, Brown RM [1975]. Acute and subacute inhalation toxicities of phosphine, phenylphosphine, and triphenylphosphine. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 36:452-458.

 
Contact Us:
USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329-4027, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO