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May 1994
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)

Carbon tetrachloride

CAS number: 56–23–5

NIOSH REL: 2 ppm (12.6 mg/m3) 60-minute STEL; NIOSH considers carbon tetrachloride to be a potential occupational carcinogen as defined by the OSHA carcinogen policy [29 CFR 1990].

Current OSHA PEL: 10 ppm TWA, 25 ppm CEILING,

200 ppm 5-min MAXIMUM PEAK in any 4 hours

1989 OSHA PEL: 2 ppm (12.6 mg/m3) TWA

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 5 ppm (31 mg/m3) TWA, 10 ppm (63 mg/m3) STEL [skin], A3

Description of Substance: Colorless liquid with a characteristic ether-like odor.

LEL: . . Noncombustible Liquid

Original (SCP) IDLH: 300 ppm

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: ACGIH [1971] reported that a severe case of human poisoning has been observed after a 3-hour exposure to concentrations ranging from 75 to 600 ppm and averaging about 210 ppm [Barnes and Jones 1967]. AIHA [1961] reported that exposures for 0.5 to 1 hour to 1,000 to 2,000 ppm have caused human fatalities from acute kidney damage [Fassett]. Kirk-Othmer [1964] reported that a 30-minute exposure to about 300 ppm causes symptoms of intoxication. Based on these data, an IDLH of 300 ppm is chosen.

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

Lethal concentration data:

 


Species

Reference
LC50

(ppm)

LCLo

(ppm)


Time
Adjusted 0.5-hr

LC (CF*)

Derived

value

Human

G. pig

Cat

Mammal

Rat

Mouse

Human

Dog

AAPCO 1966

Clayton 1967

Flury and Zernik 1935

Gig Tr Prof Zabol 1980

NPIRI 1974

Svirbely et al. 1947

Tab Biol Per 1933

von Oettingen 1949

-----

-----

-----

5,400

8,000

9,526

-----

-----

1,000

20,000

38,110

-----

-----

-----

50,000

14,620

?

2 hr

2 hr

?

4 hr

8 hr

5 min

8 hr

?

32,807 ppm (1.64)

62,500 ppm (1.64)

?

16,800 ppm (2.10)

25,625 ppm (2.69)

26,374 ppm (0.53)

39,328 ppm (2.69)

?

3,281 ppm

6,250 ppm

?

1,680 ppm

2,563 ppm

2,637 ppm

3,933 ppm


*Note: Conversion factor (CF) was determined with "n" = 2.8 [ten Berge et al. 1986].

Other human data: A severe case of poisoning was observed after a 3-hour exposure to concentrations ranging from 75 to 600 ppm and averaging about 210 ppm [Barnes and Jones 1967]. It has been reported that exposures to 1,000 to 2,000 ppm for 0.5 to 1 hour have caused human fatalities from acute kidney damage [AIHA 1961]. It has also been reported that a 30-minute exposure to about 300 ppm causes symptoms of intoxication [Kirk-Othmer 1964].

 

Revised IDLH: 200 ppm

Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for carbon tetrachloride is 200 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [AIHA 1961; Barnes and Jones 1967; Kirk-Othmer 1964]. [Note: NIOSH recommends as part of its carcinogen policy that the "most protective" respirators be worn for carbon tetrachloride at concentrations above 2 ppm.]


REFERENCES:

1. AAPCO [1966]. Pesticide chemicals official compendium. Topeka, KS: Association of American Pesticide Control Officials, Inc., p. 198.

2. ACGIH [1971]. Carbon tetrachloride. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, pp. 43-44.

3. AIHA [1961]. Carbon tetrachloride (revised 1961). In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 22:507-509.

4. Barnes R, Jones RC [1967]. Carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 29:557-560.

5. Clayton JW Jr [1967]. Fluorocarbon toxicity and biological action. Fluor Chem Rev 1(2):197-252.

6. Fassett DW [?]. Personal communication to AIHA from the Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY. [From: AIHA [1961]. Carbon tetrachloride (revised 1961). In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 22:507-509.]

7. Flury F, Zernik F [1935]. Zusammenstellung der toxischen und letalen dosen für die gebräuchlichsten gifte und versuchstiere. Abder Hand Biol Arbeitsmethod 4:1289-1422 (in German).

8. Gig Tr Prof Zabol [1980]; 24(3):17-20 (in Russian).

9. Kirk-Othmer [1964]. Carbon tetrachloride. In: Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 5:128-139.

10. NPIRI [1974]. Raw materials data handbook, physical and chemical properties, fire hazard and health hazard data. Vol. 1. Organic solvents. Bethlehem, PA: National Printing Ink Research Institute, p. 16.

11. Svirbely JL, Highman B, Alford WC, von Oettingen WF [1947]. The toxicity and narcotic action of mono-chloro-mono-bromo-methane with special reference to inorganic and volatile bromide in blood, urine and brain. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 29:382-389.

12. Tab Biol Per [1933]; 3:231 (in German).

13. ten Berge WF, Zwart A, Appelman LM [1986]. Concentration-time mortality response relationship of irritant and systematically acting vapours and gases. J Haz Mat 13:301-309.

14. von Oettingen WF [1949]. Studies on the relationship between the toxic action of chlorinated methanes and their chemical and physicohemical properties. NIH Bulletin 191:1-85.

 
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