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May 1994
 

Documentation for Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentrations (IDLHs)


Tetranitromethane

CAS number: 509–14–8

NIOSH REL: 1 ppm (8 mg/m3) TWA

Current OSHA PEL: 1 ppm (8 mg/m3) TWA

1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.005 ppm (0.04 mg/m3) TWA, A2

Description of substance: Colorless to pale-yellow liquid or solid (below 57°F) with a pungent odor.

LEL :. . Unknown

Original (SCP) IDLH: 5 ppm

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the statement by AIHA [1964] that concentrations above 5 ppm may cause irreversible lung and systemic damage [Koelsch 1917]. Patty [1963] reported that a cat exposed to 10 ppm for 20 minutes died within 10 days [Flury and Zernik 1931], and 5 cats exposed to 7 to 25 ppm for periods ranging from 2.5 to 5 hours died within 1 to 5.5 hours [Sievers et al. 1947].

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:

Lethal concentration data:

 

SpeciesReferenceLC50

(ppm)

LCLo

(ppm)

TimeAdjusted 0.5-hr

LC (CF)

Derived value
Rat

Rat

Cat

Mouse

Horn 1953

Kinkead et al. 1977

Marhold 1986

USAF 1977

LC65: 33

18

100

54

-----

-----

-----

-----

6.5 hr

4 hr

20 min

4 hr

78 ppm (2.35)

36 ppm (2.0)

87 ppm (0.87)

108 ppm (2.0)

7.8 ppm

3.6 ppm

8.9 ppm

11 ppm

Other animal data: Cats exposed to 10 ppm for 20 min died within ten days [Flury and Zernik 1931]. It has been reported that cats exposed to 7 to 25 ppm for periods ranging from 2.5 to 5 hours died within 1 to 5.5 hours [Sievers et al. 1947].

Human data: It has been stated that concentrations above 5 ppm may cause irreversible lung and systemic damage [Koelsch 1917].

 

Revised IDLH: 4 ppm

Basis for revised IDLH: Based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [Koelsch 1917] and animals [Horn 1953; Kinkead et al. 1977], the revised IDLH for tetranitromethane is 4 ppm.

REFERENCES:

1. AIHA [1964]. Tetranitromethane. In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 25:513-515.

2. Flury F, Zernik F [1931]. Schädliche gase dämpfe, nebel, rauch- und staubarten. Berlin, Germany: Verlag von Julius Springer, p. 417 (in German).

3. Horn HJ [1953]. Chemical Corps Medical Laboratories Contract Report No. 20.

4. Kinkead ER, MacEwen JD, Haun CC, Vernot EH, Dacre JC [1977]. Toxic hazards evaluation of five atmospheric pollutants from Army ammunition plants. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH: Air Force Systems Command, Aerospace Medical Division, Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory Technical Report AMRL-TR-77-25.

5. Koelsch F [1917]. Die giftwirkung des tetranitromethane. Gewerbehygiene 5:185 (in German). [From AIHA [1964]. Tetranitromethane. In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 25:513-515.]

6. Marhold J [1986]. Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie, Organicke Latky. Prague, Czechoslovakia: Avicenum, p. 403 (in Czechoslovakian).

7. Patty FA, ed. [1963]. Industrial hygiene and toxicology. 2nd rev. ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. New York, NY: Interscience Publishers, Inc., p. 2075.

8. Sievers RF, Rushing E, Gay H, Monaco AR [1947]. Toxic effects of tetranitromethane, a contaminant in crude TNT. Public Health Rep 62:1054-1058.

9. USAF [1977]. Proceedings of the 8th annual conference on environmental toxicology. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH: Air Force Systems Command, Aerospace Medical Division, Aerospace Medical Research Technical Report, AMRL-TR-77-97.

 
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