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May 1994
 

Documentation for Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentrations (IDLHs)


Nickel carbonyl (as Ni)

CAS number: 13463–39–3

NIOSH REL: 0.001 ppm (0.007 mg/m3) TWA; NIOSH considers nickel carbonyl to be a potential occupational carcinogen as defined by the OSHA carcinogen policy [29 CFR 1990].

Current OSHA PEL: 0.001 ppm (0.007 mg/m3) TWA

1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.05 ppm (0.12 mg/m3) TWA

Description of substance: Colorless to yellow liquid with a musty odor.

LEL: . . . 2% (10% LEL, 2,000 ppm)

Original (SCP) IDLH*: 7 ppm [*Note: "Effective" IDLH = 2 ppm -- see discussion below.]

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH could be based on the statement by ACGIH [1971] that a 30-minute exposure to 7 ppm is lethal for mice [Kincaid et al. 1953]. According to AIHA [1968], the mouse 30-minute LC50 is 10 ppm [Kincaid et al. 1953]. Because of the assigned protection factor afforded by each device, however, 2,000 ´ the OSHA PEL of 0.001 ppm (i.e., 2 ppm) is the concentration above which only the "most protective" respirators are permitted. With regard to the short exposure tolerance for humans, AIHA [1968] reported that a concentration of 3 ppm for 30 minutes has been suggested [Kincaid et al. 1953].

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:

Lethal concentration data:

 

SpeciesReferenceLC50

(ppm)

LCLo

(ppm)

TimeAdjusted 0.5-hr

LC (CF)

Derived value
Dog

Human

Cat

Rabbit

Rat

Mouse

Mouse

Mouse

Armit 1909

Brief et al. 1971

Coulston & Korte 1975

Gekkan Yakuji 1980

Kincaid et al. 1956

Kincaid et al. 1956

Kincaid et al. 1953

Kincaid et al. 1953

-----

-----

266

-----

35

-----

94

10

360

30

-----

42

-----

7

-----

-----

90 min

30 min

30 min

30 min

30 min

30 min

30 min

30 min

519 ppm (1.44)

30 ppm (1.0)

266 ppm (1.0)

42 ppm (1.0)

35 ppm (1.0)

7 ppm (1.0)

94 ppm (1.0)

10 ppm (1.0)

52 ppm

3.0 ppm

27 ppm

4.2 ppm

3.5 ppm

0.7 ppm

9.4 ppm

1.0 ppm

Other human data: It has been stated that 3 ppm for 30 minutes is the probable short-term exposure limit [Kincaid et al. 1956].

 

Revised IDLH: 2 ppm

Basis for revised IDLH: Based on acute toxicity data in humans [Brief et al. 1971; Kinkaid et al. 1956], an IDLH of 3 ppm would have been appropriate for nickel carbonyl. However, the revised IDLH for nickel carbonyl is 2 ppm based on being 2,000 times the current OSHA PEL of 0.001 ppm (2,000 is an assigned protection factor for respirators; only the "most reliable" respirators are recommended above 2,000 times the OSHA PEL). [Note: NIOSH recommends as part of its carcinogen policy that the "most protective" respirators be worn for nickel carbonyl at concentrations above 0.001 ppm.]

REFERENCES:

1. ACGIH [1971]. Nickel carbonyl. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, p. 180.

2. AIHA [1968]. Nickel carbonyl. In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 29:304-307.

3. Armit HW [1909]. The toxicology of nickel carbonyl. J Hyg 7:525-551.

4. Brief RS, Blanchard JW, Scala RA, Blacker JH [1971]. Metal carbonyls in the petroleum industry. Arch Environ Health 23:373-384.

5. Coulston F, Korte F, eds. [1975]. Heavy metal toxicity, safety and hormology. In: Environmental Quality & Safety, Supplement 1. New York, NY: Georg Thieme Publishers, pp. 1-120.

6. Gekkan Yakuji (Pharmaceuticals Monthly) [1980]; 22(3):455-459 (in Japanese).

7. Kincaid JF, Stanley EL, Beckworth CH, Sunderman FW [1956]. Nickel poisoning. III. Procedures for detection, prevention, and treatment of nickel carbonyl exposure including a method for the determination of nickel in biologic materials. Am J Clin Pathol 26:107-119.

8. Kincaid JF, Strong JS, Sunderman FW [1953]. Nickel poisoning. I. Experimental study of the effects of acute and subacute exposure to nickel carbonyl. AMA Arch Ind Hyg Occup Med 8:48-60.

 
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