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May 1994
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)

Ferrovanadium dust

CAS number: 12604–58–9

NIOSH REL: 1 mg/m3 TWA, 3 mg/m3 STEL

Current OSHA PEL: 1 mg/m3 TWA

1989 OSHA PEL: 1 mg/m3 TWA, 3 mg/m3 STEL

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 1 mg/m3 TWA, 3 mg/m3 STEL

Description of Substance: Dark, odorless particulate dispersed in air.

LEL: . . . Solid

Original (SCP) IDLH*: No Evidence [*Note: "Effective" IDLH = 500 mg/m3 -- see discussion below.]

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The available toxicological data contain no evidence of an IDLH for ferrovanadium dust. ACGIH [1971] reported that no acute intoxication occurred in animals exposed at concentrations as high as 10,000 mg/m3 [Roshchin 1952]. Therefore, for this draft technical standard, respirators have been selected on the basis of the assigned protection factor afforded by each device up to 500 × the OSHA PEL of 1 mg/m3 (i.e., 500 mg/m3); only the "most protective" respirators are permitted for concentrations exceeding 500 mg/m3.

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

Animal data: No acute intoxication occurred in animals exposed to concentrations as high as 10,000 mg/m3; serious pathologic changes occurred only at concentrations ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 mg/m3 in 1-hour exposures on alternate days for 2 months [Roshchin 1952]. It was also reported that exposure of rats to 40 to 80 mg/m3 for 2 months caused bronchitis, interstitial sclerosis, and perivascular edema [Clayton and Clayton 1981].

Human data: Systemic effects have not been reported from industrial exposure [Proctor et al. 1988].

 

Revised IDLH: 500 mg/m3

Basis for revised IDLH: The available toxicological data contain no evidence that an acute exposure to a high concentration of ferrovanadium dust would impede escape or cause any irreversible health effects within 30 minutes. However, the revised IDLH for ferrovanadium dust is 500 mg/m3 based on being 500 times the NIOSH REL of 1 mg/m3 (500 is an assigned protection factor for respirators and was used arbitrarily during the Standards Completion Program for deciding when the "most protective" respirators should be used for particulates).


REFERENCES:

1. ACGIH [1971]. Ferrovanadium. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, p. 114.

2. Clayton GD, Clayton FE, eds. [1981]. Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. 3rd rev. ed. Vol. 2A. Toxicology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. 2020.

3. Proctor NH, Hughes, JP, Fischman ML [1988]. Chemical hazards of the workplace. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott Company, pp. 257-258.

4. Roshchin IV [1952]. Hygienic description of production vanadium aerosol. Gig Sanit 11:49-53 (translated).

 
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