Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 108–95–2
NIOSH REL: 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) TWA,
15.6 ppm (60 mg/m3) 15-minute CEILING [skin]
Current OSHA PEL: 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) TWA [skin]
1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) TWA [skin]
Description of substance: Colorless to light-pink, crystalline solid with a sweet, acrid odor.
LEL :. . 1.8% (10% LEL, 1,800 ppm)
Original (SCP) IDLH: 250 ppm
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on an analogy with cresol which has an IDLH of 250 ppm.
Existing short-term exposure guidelines: 1991 American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs):
ERPG-1: 10 ppm (60-minute)
ERPG-2: 50 ppm (60-minute)
ERPG-3: 200 ppm (60-minute)
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
Lethal concentration data:
|Species||Reference||LC50 (ppm)||LCLo (ppm)||Time||Adjusted 0.5-hr |
|Gig Tr Prof Zabol 1955 |
Lethal dose data:
|Species||Reference||Route||LD50 (mg/kg)||LDLo (mg/kg)||Adjusted LD||Derived value|
|Brown and Lamson 1935 |
Deichmann & Witherup 1944
Flury and Zernik 1935
Flury and Zernik 1935
Korolev et al. 1973
|568 ppm |
|57 ppm |
Other animal data: RD50 (mouse), 166 ppm [DeCeaurriz et al. 1981]. In rats, an exposure of 312 ppm for 1 hour only resulted in lacrimation and eye and nasal irritation; a slight loss of coordination was reported within 4 hours of exposure to 230 ppm [Flickinger 1976].
Human data: It has been stated that the toxicity of phenol is closely related to that of cresol [ACGIH 1991]. It has been reported that 14 to 140 mg/kg is the lethal oral dose [Deichmann and Gerarde 1969; Lefaux 1978]. [Note: An oral dose of 14 to 140 mg/kg is equivalent to a 70-kg worker being exposed to 167 to 1,670 ppm for 30 minutes, assuming a breathing rate of 50 liters per minute and 100% absorption.]
|Revised IDLH: 250 ppm [Unchanged] |
Basis for revised IDLH: Based on acute inhalation toxicity data in animals [Flickinger 1976] and an analogy to cresol [ACGIH 1991] which has a revised IDLH of 250 ppm, the original IDLH for phenol of 250 ppm is not being revised at this time.
1. ACGIH . Cresol, all isomers. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, pp. 340-341.
2. Brown HW, Lamson PD . Oral toxicity of ortho-n-alkylphenols to white rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 32:592-594.
3. DeCeaurriz JC, Micillino JC, Bonnet P, Guenier JP . Sensory irritation caused by various industrial airborne chemicals. Toxicol Lett 9(2):137-143.
4. Deichmann WB, Gerarde HW . Phenol (carbolic acid). In: Toxicology of drugs and chemicals. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc., pp. 463-464.
5. Deichmann WB, Witherup S . Phenol studies. VI. The acute and comparative toxicity of phenol and o-, m- and p-cresols for experimental animals. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 80:233-240.
6. Flickinger CW . The benzenediols: catechol, resorcinol and hydroquinone: a review of the industrial toxicology and current industrial exposure limits. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 37:596-606.
7. Flury F, Zernik F . Zusammenstellung der toxischen und letalen dosen für die gebräuchlichsten gifte und versuchstiere. Abder Hand Biol Arbeitsmethod 4:1319 (in German).
8. Gig Tr Prof Zabol . On the toxicity and maximum permissible concentration of a complex set of the neoleucorite (phenoformaldhyde) resin volatile products; 19(8):37-40 (in Russian).
9. Korolev AA, Abirdir AA, et al. . Hygienic and toxicologic features of products of phenol destruction in ozone treatment of water. Gig Sanit 38(8):6-10 (in Russian).
10. Lefaux R . Practical toxicology of plastics. Cleveland, OH: Chemical Rubber Co., p. 329.
11. Nagoznyi PA . About the elimination of the problem of combined effect of several toxic materials. Gig Sanit 41(6):103-105 (in Russian).
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