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May 1994
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)

Epichlorohydrin

CAS number: 106–89–8

NIOSH REL: None established; NIOSH considers epichlorohydrin to be a potential occupational carcinogen as defined by the OSHA carcinogen policy [29 CFR 1990].

Current OSHA PEL: 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) TWA [skin]

1989 OSHA PEL: 2 ppm (8 mg/m3) TWA [skin]

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 2 ppm (7.6 mg/m3) TWA [skin]

Description of Substance: Colorless liquid with a slightly irritating, chloroform-like odor.

LEL:. . 3.8% (10% LEL, 3,800 ppm)

Original (SCP) IDLH: 250 ppm

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the rat 4-hour LCLO of 250 ppm [Carpenter et al. 1949 cited by NIOSH 1976a].

Existing short-term exposure guidelines: 1991 American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs):

ERPG-1: 2 ppm (60-minute)

ERPG-2: 20 ppm (60-minute)

ERPG-3: 100 ppm (60-minute)

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

Lethal concentration data:

 


Species

Reference
LC50

(ppm)

LCLo

(ppm)


Time
Adjusted 0.5-hr

LC (CF)

Derived

value

Rat

Rat

Rat

Mouse

Rat

Rat

Mouse

Rat

Rat

Carpenter et al. 1949

Dow

Dow

Freuder and Leake 1941

NPIRI 1974

Smyth and Carpenter 1948

Smyth and Pozzani 1986

Weil et al. 1963

Weil et al. 1963

-----

3,617

2,165

LC100: 8,300

250

244

LC100: 7,414

360

LC66: 250

250

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

4 hr

1 hr

1 hr

30 min

8 hr

8 hr

30 min

6 hr

8 hr

500 ppm (2.0)

4,521 ppm (1.25)

2,706 ppm (1.25)

8,300 ppm (1.0)

600 ppm (2.4)

538 ppm (2.4)

7,414 ppm (1.0)

828 ppm (2.3)

600 ppm (2.4)

50 ppm

452 ppm

271 ppm

830 ppm

60 ppm

54 ppm

741 ppm

83 ppm

60 ppm


Other animal data: RD50 (mouse), 687 ppm [Alarie 1981].

Human data: Workers engaged in the production of epichlorohydrin from dichlorohydrin glycerin, with isolated exposures to epichlorohydrin ranging from 4.9 to 54.9 ppm, showed no apparent adverse effects [Pet'ko et al. 1966]. Concentrations of 20 ppm produced transient burning of the eyes and nasal mucosa, 40 ppm produced eye and throat irritation that persisted for 48 hours, and concentrations in excess of 100 ppm were considered intolerable with a potential for lung edema and kidney lesions [NIOSH 1976b].

 

Revised IDLH: 75 ppm

Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for epichlorohydrin is 75 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [NIOSH 1976b; Pet'ko et al. 1966] and animals [Carpenter et al. 1949; NPIRI 1974; Smyth and Carpenter 1948; Weil et al. 1963]. [Note: NIOSH recommends as part of its carcinogen policy that the "most protective" respirators be worn for epichlorohydrin at any detectable concentration.]


REFERENCES:

1. Alarie Y [1981]. Dose-response analysis in animal studies: prediction of human responses. Environ Health Perspect 42:9-13.

2. Carpenter CP, Smyth HF Jr, Pozzani VC [1949]. The assay of acute vapor toxicity and the grading and interpretation of results on 96 chemical compounds. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 31:343-344.

3. Dow Chemical Company [?]. Material safety data sheet: epichlorohydrin [unpublished data]. Midland, MI: Dow Chemical Company, Health and Environmental Sciences USA. [From 1991 American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs).]

4. Freuder E, Leake CD [1941]. The toxicity of epichlorohydrin. University of California Berkeley Publication, Pharmacology 2:69-78.

5. NIOSH [1976a]. TX49000. Propane, 1-chloro-2,3-epoxy-. In: Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances, 1976 ed. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 76-191, p. 955.

6. NIOSH [1976b]. NIOSH criteria for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to epichlorohydrin. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 76-206, pp. 102-107.

7. NPIRI [1974]. Raw materials data handbook, physical and chemical properties, fire hazard and health hazard data. Vol. 1. Organic solvents. Bethlehem, PA: National Printing Ink Research Institute, p. 41.

8. Pet'ko LI, Gronsberg ESh, et al. [1966]. Work condition and health status of plant personnel engaged in the production of epichlorohydrin. Gig Tr Prof Zabol 10(11):52-54 (in Russian). [From ACGIH [1991]. Epichlorohydrin. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, pp. 550-555.]

9. Smyth HF Jr, Carpenter CP [1948]. Further experience with the range-finding test in the industrial toxicology laboratory. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 30(1):63-68.

10. Smyth HF Jr, Pozzani UC [1986]. Technical Bulletin SC:57. Shell Chemical Corporation.

11. Weil CS, Condra N, Hann C, Streigel JA [1963]. Experimental carcinogenicity and acute toxicity of representative epoxides. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 24:305-325.

 
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