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NIOSH Fatal Occupational Injury Cost Fact Sheet: Retail Trade

September 2006
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 2006-157

NIOSH Fatal Occupational Injury Cost Fact Sheet: Retail Trade

Number, rate, and costs of fatal occupational injuries in the U.S. construction industry by selected characteristics, 1992–2002

  Costs (2003 dollars)
Characteristic Number of fatalities Fatality rate(per 100,000 workers) Total (millions) Mean(thousands) Median(thousands)
All incidents 6689 2.8 $5110 $767 $779
Male 5481 4.7 4214 772 783
Female 1208 1.0 896 744 772
Race of decedent:
White 4925 2.4 3723 759 783
Black 769 3.4 582 761 764
Other* 995 8.3 805 810 779
Age of decedent:
16–19 312 0.8 214 686 679
20–24 623 1.6 505 810 775
25–34 1434 2.5 1375 959 947
35–44 1524 3.2 1497 983 991
45–54 1347 4.3 1090 809 813
55–64 872 5.0 388 445 422
65+ 577 8.1 41 75 63
Occupation group:
Managerial and
professional specialty
918 3.7 894 974 1002
Technical, sales, and
administrative support
3344 2.8 2495 750 759
Service 777 1.4 503 648 691
Farming, forestry, and
17 4.7 8 475 582
Precision production,
craft, and repair
330 2.6 276 836 885
Operators, fabricators,
and laborers
1262 4.8 904 722 768
Event or exposure:
Contact with objects and
279 0.1 204 732 774
Falls 310 0.1 162 541 576
Bodily reaction and
13 0.0 7 503 612
Exposure to harmful
substances or
201 0.1 165 822 824
1529 0.6 1214 802 850
Fires and explosions 118 0.0 85 721 756
Assaults and violent acts 4231 1.8 3268 773 764

*This category includes all other races, such as American Indian and Asian, as well as unknown or missing races.

Numbers are not reported for “unknown” or “not classified” categories.

Fatal Occupational Injury Cost Model

Theoretical Basis of Cost Estimation

The cost to society of a workplace fatality was estimated using the cost-of-illness approach, which combines direct and indirect costs to yield an overall cost of an occupational fatal injury. For these calculations, only medical expenses were used to estimate the direct cost associated with the fatality. The indirect cost was derived by calculating the present value of future earnings summed from the year of death until the decedent would have reached age 67, accounting for the probability of survival were it not for the premature death. (For more information, see Biddle, E [2004]. Economic Cost of Fatal Occupational Injuries in the United States, 1980–1997. Contemporary Economic Policy 22(3):370–381.)

Mathematical Representation of Indirect Costs

PVF = ΣPy,s (y+1)[Ys, j(n) + Yhs(n)] (1+g)n–y/(1+r)n–y

PVF = present discounted value of loss due to occupational fatal injury per person
Py,s (y+1) = probability that a person of race r, sex s, and age y will survive to age y+1
y = age of the person at death
s = sex of the person
n = age if the person had survived
Ys,j(n) = median annual earnings of an employed person of sex s, occupation j, and age n (includes benefits and life-cycle wage growth adjustment)
Yhs(n) = mean annual imputed value of home production of a person of sex s and age n
g = wage growth rate attributable to overall productivity
r = real discount rate (3%)

Data Sources

Fatality data: Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI). These data exclude military personnel, decedents with unknown age or sex, fatalities occurring in New York City, and fatalities from the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.

Probability of survival: National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Vital Statistics.

Median annual earnings: BLS Current Population Survey. Wage data are based on the occupation of the decedent and the year of death adjusted by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Deflator to base year of dollar. Life-cycle wage growth was calculated based on the rate of change in wages between age groups.

Benefits: U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Benefits data are based on the industry where the decedent was employed and the year of death adjusted by the GDP Deflator.

Mean annual home production: Expectancy Data that were derived by a time diary study sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and conducted by the University of Maryland.

Wage growth rate: Based on BLS Employment Cost Index (ECI)

Medical costs: National Council on Compensation Insurance. Costs are a 3-year average cost.

Employment estimates for rate calculations: BLS Current Population Survey.

Fatality Rate Calculations

Fatality rates were calculated by NIOSH and may differ from previously published BLS CFOI rates. Fatality rates were calculated as deaths per 100,000 workers. Fatality rates for sex, race, age group, and occupation were calculated using employment estimates by the individual characteristic within the specific industry sector. Employment estimates for the specific industry sector were used to generate rates for event.

Classification Systems

Industry: 1987 Standard Industrial Classification System (SIC)
Occupation: 1990 Bureau of Census Occupational Classification System (BOC)
Event: 1992 BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS)