As the date approaches for the 13th Annual AEA Summer Evaluation Institute, sponsored this year by the American Evaluation Association, it is a good time to reflect on the evolution of CDC's program evaluation and the future of program evaluation at CDC.
Evaluation is a systematic method for collecting, analyzing, and using data to examine the effectiveness and efficiency of programs. As importantly, evaluation can contribute to continuous program improvement. Although program monitoring and evaluation have always been a respected component of public health practice, the ability to conduct these meaningfully has been constrained by wide differences in expertise, resources of programs, and commitment to evaluation.
As the accountability environment has intensified at all levels of government, public health programs often find themselves unable to make a persuasive case for the efficacy and effectiveness of their programs. Likewise, in an environment of scarce resources, we need more and better information about which interventions and approaches are best suited to the problem. Strong program monitoring and evaluation can help us identify our best investments as well as determine how to establish and sustain them as optimal practice.
Starting with the 1999 publication of A Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health and a follow-up document applying the Framework to evaluation of surveillance systems, CDC has emphasized that evaluation designs and methods need to match the purpose, user, and use of the findings. The Framework provides a systematic approach that ensures evaluations are useful, feasible, ethical, and accurate. As a result, monitoring and evaluation findings will be timely and relevant to planning and budgeting decisions.
Most recently, CDC's Office of the Director issued recommendations and guidelines for CDC programs and partners on conducting strong program monitoring and evaluation. The guidelines establish the approach to and organization of monitoring and evaluation within CDC's Centers, Divisions, and programs. The guidelines also outline the expectations CDC has set for monitoring and evaluation among our applicants and funded recipients. In addition, the guidelines describe the efforts that CDC's Office of the Director needs to take to support strong evaluation and evaluation capacity at CDC.
Related resources and documents in monitoring and evaluation are linked below.
Tom Chapel, Chief Evaluation Officer
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Guest Editor, Science Clips
The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
- Preventing skin cancer through reduction of indoor tanning: current evidence
Watson M, Holman DM, Fox KA, Guy GP, Seidenberg AB, Sampson BP, Sinclair C, Lazovich D.
Am J Prev Med. 2013 Jun;44(6):682-9.
- Prevalence of clinical hip abnormalities in haemophilia A and B: an analysis of the UDC database
Kelly D, Zhang QC, Soucie JM, Manco-Johnson M, Dimichele D.
Haemophilia. 2013 May;19(3):426-31.
- Influenza: propagation, quantification, and storage
Balish AL, Katz JM, Klimov AI.
Curr Protoc Microbiol. 2013 May;Chapter 15:Unit15G 1.
- Role of intestinal mucosal integrity in HIV transmission to infants through breastfeeding: the BAN Study
Kourtis AP, Ibegbu CC, Wiener J, King CC, Tegha G, Kamwendo D, Kumwenda J, Pal KS, Flax V, Ellington S, Kacheche Z, Kayira D, Chasela C, van der Horst C, Jamieson DJ.
J Infect Dis. 2013 May 17.
- Multiple independent emergences of type 2 vaccine-derived polioviruses during a large outbreak in northern Nigeria
Burns CC, Shaw J, Jorba J, Bukbuk D, Adu F, Gumede N, Pate MA, Abanida EA, Gasasira A, Iber J, Chen Q, Vincent A, Chenoweth P, Henderson E, Wannemuehler K, Naeem A, Umami RN, Nishimura Y, Shimizu H, Baba M, Adeniji A, Williams AJ, Kilpatrick DR, Oberste MS, Wassilak SG, Tomori O, Pallansch MA, Kew O.
J Virol. 2013 May;87(9):4907-22.
- Burden and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infants and young children in developing countries (the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, GEMS): a prospective, case-control study
Kotloff KL, Nataro JP, Blackwelder WC, Nasrin D, Farag TH, Panchalingam S, Wu Y, Sow SO, Sur D, Breiman RF, Faruque AS, Zaidi AK, Saha D, Alonso PL, Tamboura B, Sanogo D, Onwuchekwa U, Manna B, Ramamurthy T, Kanungo S, Ochieng JB, Omore R, Oundo JO, Hossain A, Das SK, Ahmed S, Qureshi S, Quadri F, Adegbola RA, Antonio M, Hossain MJ, Akinsola A, Mandomando I, Nhampossa T, Acacio S, Biswas K, O'Reilly CE, Mintz ED, Berkeley LY, Muhsen K, Sommerfelt H, Robins-Browne RM, Levine MM.
Lancet. 2013 May 13.
- The role of physicians in promoting healthier built environments
Dannenberg AL, Wu P, Frumkin H.
Am J Prev Med. 2013 Jun;44(6):e67-9.
- Reductions in serum lipids with a 4-year decline in serum perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid
Fitz-Simon N, Fletcher T, Luster MI, Steenland K, Calafat AM, Kato K, Armstrong B.
Epidemiology. 2013 May 16.
- Healthy and safe swimming: pool chemical-associated health events
Hlavsa M, Beach M.
J Environ Health. 2013 May;75(9):42-44.
- Infectious disease surveillance by medical examiners and coroners
Blau DM, Clark SC, Nolte KB.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 May;19(5):821-822.
- Molecular characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F isolates associated with rural community outbreaks in Alaska
Zulz T, Wenger JD, Rudolph K, Robinson DA, Rakov AV, Bruden D, Singleton RJ, Bruce MG, Hennessy TW.
J Clin Microbiol. 2013 May;51(5):1402-7.
- Strategies to reduce indoor tanning: current research gaps and future opportunities for prevention
Holman DM, Fox KA, Glenn JD, Guy GP, Watson M, Baker K, Cokkinides V, Gottlieb M, Lazovich D, Perna FM, Sampson BP, Seidenberg AB, Sinclair C, Geller AC.
Am J Prev Med. 2013 Jun;44(6):672-81.
- Contaminated ventilator air flow sensor linked to Bacillus cereus colonization of newborns
Turabelidze G, Gee JE, Hoffmaster AR, Manian F, Butler C, Byrd D, Schildknecht S, Hauser LC, Duncan M, Ferrett R, Evans D, Talley C.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 May;19(5):781-3.
- National agenda for prevention of healthcare-associated infections in dialysis centers
Gupta N, Cannon M, Srinivasan A.
Semin Dial. 2013 May 20.
- Cost savings associated with prohibiting smoking in U.S. subsidized housing
King BA, Peck RM, Babb SD.
Am J Prev Med. 2013 Jun;44(6):631-4.
- The value of effective public tuberculosis treatment: an analysis of opportunity costs associated with multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Latvia
Miller TL, Cirule A, Wilson FA, Holtz TH, Riekstina V, Cain KP, Moonan PK, Leimane V.
Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2013 ;11(1):9.
- Trends in compliance with two-dose influenza vaccine recommendations among children aged 6 months through 8 years
Pabst LJ, Chaves SS, Weinbaum C.
Vaccine. 2013 May 15.
- Teen driving in rural North Dakota: a qualitative look at parental perceptions
Gill SK, Shults RA, Cope JR, Cunningham TJ, Freelon B.
Accid Anal Prev. 2013 May;54:114-21.
- Homicide-followed-by-suicide incidents involving child victims
Logan JE, Walsh S, Patel N, Hall JE.
Am J Health Behav. 2013 Jul;37(4):531-542.
- Laboratory and field evaluation of a new rapid test for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti antigen in human blood
Weil GJ, Curtis KC, Fakoli L, Fischer K, Gankpala L, Lammie PJ, Majewski AC, Pelletreau S, Won KY, Bolay FK, Fischer PU.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 May 20.
- The health-system benefits and cost-effectiveness of using Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct nucleic acid amplification testing to diagnose tuberculosis disease in the United States
Marks SM, Cronin W, Venkatappa T, Maltas G, Chon S, Sharnprapai S, Gaeddert M, Tapia J, Dorman SE, Etkind S, Crosby C, Blumberg HM, Bernardo J.
Clin Infect Dis. 2013 May 22.
- Purification and sidewall functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and resulting bioactivity in two macrophage models
Hamilton RF, Xiang C, Li M, Ka I, Yang F, Ma D, Porter DW, Wu N, Holian A.
Inhal Toxicol. 2013 ;25(4):199-210.
- Development of a genomic DNA reference material panel for myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) genetic testing
Kalman L, Tarleton J, Hitch M, Hegde M, Hjelm N, Berry-Kravis E, Zhou L, Hilbert JE, Luebbe EA, Moxley RT, Toji L.
J Mol Diagn. 2013 May 13.
- Lipid-based nutrient supplements are feasible as a breastmilk replacement for HIV-exposed infants from 24 to 48 weeks of age
Flax VL, Bentley ME, Chasela CS, Kayira D, Hudgens MG, Kacheche KZ, Chavula C, Kourtis AP, Jamieson DJ, van der Horst CM, Adair LS.
J Nutr. 2013 May;143(5):701-7.
- Use of calorie information at fast food and chain restaurants among US youth aged 9-18 years, 2010
Wethington H, Maynard LM, Blanck HM.
J Public Health (Oxf). 2013 May 22.
- A decision process for determining whether to conduct responder health research following large disasters
Decker JA, Keifer M, Reissman DB, Funk R, Halpin J, Bernard B, Ehrenberg RL, Schuler CR, Whelan E, Myers K, Howard J.
Am J Disaster Med. 2013 ;8(1):25-33.
- Examination of potential sources of bias in the US Coal Workers' Health Surveillance Program
Laney AS, Attfield MD.
Am J Public Health. 2013 May 16.
- A single-item global job satisfaction measure is associated with quantitative bliood immune indices in white-collar employees
Nakata A, Irie M, Takahashi M.
Ind Health. 2013 ;51(2):193-201.
- Job strain, effort-reward imbalance and neck, shoulder and wrist symptoms among Chinese workers
Yu S, Nakata A, Gu G, Swanson NG, He L, Zhou W, Wang S.
Ind Health. 2013 ;51(2):193-201.
- Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing
Esswein EJ, Breitenstein M, Snawder J, Kiefer M, Sieber WK.
J Occup Environ Hyg. 2013 Jul;10(7):347-56.
- Workplace racial/ethnic similarity, job satisfaction, and lumbar back health among warehouse workers: asymmetric reactions across racial/ethnic groups
Hoppe A, Fujishiro K, Heaney C.
J Organiz Behav. 2013 .
- Overview of risk management for engineered nanomaterials
Schulte PA, Geraci CL, Hodson LL, Zumwalde RD, Kuempel ED, Murashov V, Martinez KF, Heidel DS.
J Phys Conf Ser. 2013 ;429(1):012062.
- ROS evaluation for a series of CNTs and their derivatives using an ESR method with DMPO
Tsuruoka S, Takeuchi K, Koyama K, Noguchi T, Endo M, Tristan F, Terrones M, Matsumoto H, Saito N, Usui Y, Porter DW, Castranova V.
J Phys Conf Ser. 2013 ;429(1):012029.
- Current employment status, occupational category, occupational hazard exposure and job stress in relation to telomere length: the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)
Fujishiro K, Diez-Roux AV, Landsbergis PA, Jenny NS, Seeman T.
Occup Environ Med. 2013 May 18.
- Personal and workplace psychosocial risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome: a pooled study cohort
Harris-Adamson C, Eisen EA, Dale AM, Evanoff B, Hegmann KT, Thiese MS, Kapellusch JM, Garg A, Burt S, Bao S, Silverstein B, Gerr F, Merlino L, Rempel D.
Occup Environ Med. 2013 May 3.
- The consequences of nursing stress and need for integrated solutions
Roberts RK, Grubb PL.
Rehabil Nurs. 2013 May 21.
- It is possible: availability of lymphedema case management in each health facility in Togo: program description, evaluation, and lessons learned
Mathieu E, Dorkenoo AM, Morgah K, Datagni M, Cantey PT, Morgah K, Harvey K, Ziperstein J, Drexler N, Chapleau G, Sodahlon Y.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 May 20.
- Opportunities to investigate the effects of ivermectin mass drug administration on scabies
Engelman D, Martin DL, Hay RJ, Chosidow O, McCarthy JS, Fuller LC, Steer AC.
Parasit Vectors. 2013 ;6:106.
- Challenges for malaria elimination in Zanzibar: pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors and poor performance of long-lasting insecticide nets
Haji KA, Khatib BO, Smith S, Ali AS, Devine GJ, Coetzee M, Majambere S.
Parasit Vectors. 2013 Mar 28;6(1):82.
- A success story: Togo is moving toward becoming the first sub-Saharan African nation to eliminate lymphatic filariasis through mass drug administration and countrywide morbidity alleviation
Sodahlon YK, Dorkenoo AM, Morgah K, Nabiliou K, Agbo K, Miller R, Datagni M, Seim A, Mathieu E.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013 Apr;7(4):e2080.
- Allostatic load may not be associated with chronic stress in pregnant women, NHANES 1999-2006
Morrison S, Shenassa ED, Mendola P, Wu T, Schoendorf K.
Ann Epidemiol. 2013 May;23(5):294-7.
- Changes in self-rated health and subjective social status over time in a cohort of healthcare personnel
Thompson MG, Gaglani MJ, Naleway A, Thaker S, Ball S.
J Health Psychol. 2013 May 16.
- Using a discrete choice experiment to elicit time trade-off and willingness-to-pay amounts for influenza health-related quality of life at different ages
Prosser LA, Payne K, Rusinak D, Shi P, Messonnier M.
Pharmacoeconomics. 2013 Apr;31(4):305-15.
- Current status of diagnostic methods for henipavirus
Tamin A, Rota PA.
Dev Biol (Basel). 2013 ;135:139-45.
- Is that a rodent in your luggage? A mixed method approach to describe bushmeat importation into the United States
Bair-Brake H, Bell T, Higgins A, Bailey N, Duda M, Shapiro S, Eves HE, Marano N, Galland G.
Zoonoses Public Health. 2013 May 16.