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Plague andYersinia pestis

Dennis, DT, Gage KL, Gratz N, Poland JD, and Tikhomirov E. (Principal authors). Plague Manual.external icon  World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland. 172 pp., 1999.

Cunha CB, Cunha BA. Impact of plague on human history.external icon Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2006 Jun;20(2):253-72, viii.

Mead PS. Plague in Madagascar a tragic opportunity for improving public health.external icon N Engl J Med. 2017;378(2):106–8.

Kugeler KJ, Staples JE, Hinckley AF, Gage KL, Mead PS. Epidemiology of human plague in the United States, 1900–2012.external icon  Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Jan; 21(1):16-22.

Stenseth NC, Atshabar BB, Begon M, Belmain SR, Bertherat E, et al. Plague: Past, present, and future.external icon PLoS Med. 2008 5(1): e3.

Kugeler KJ, Mead PS, Campbell SB, Nelson CA. Antimicrobial Treatment Patterns and Illness Outcome Among United States Patients with Plague, 1942-2018.external icon Clin Infect Dis. 2020 May 21;70(70 Suppl 1):S20-S26.

Nelson CA, Fleck-Derderian S, Cooley KM, Meaney-Delman D, Becksted HA, Russell Z, Renaud B, Bertherat E, Mead PS. Antimicrobial Treatment of Human Plague: A Systematic Review of the Literature on Individual Cases, 1937-2019.external icon Clin Infect Dis. 2020 May 21;70(70 Suppl 1):S3-S10.

Eskey CR, Haas VH. Plague in the western part of the United States, Public Health Bull. 254:1–82 (1939).

Hull HF, Montes JM, J M Mann JM. Septicemic plague in New Mexicoexternal icon. J Infect Dis. 1987 Jan;155(1):113-8.

Plague Ecology

Gage KL and Kosoy MY. Natural history of plague: Perspectives from more than a century of research.external icon  Ann Rev Entomology. 2005;50:505-528.

Eisen JE and Gage KL. Adaptive Strategies of Yersinia pestis to Persist During Inter-Epizootic and Epizootic Periods.external icon Vet. Res. 2009; 40:01.

Eisen RJ, Enscore RE, Biggerstaff BJ, Reynolds PJ, Ettestad P, Brown T, Pape J, Tanda D, Levy CE, Engelthaler DM, Cheek J, Bueno Jr. R, Targhetta, Montenieri JA, Gage KL. Human plague in the southwestern United States, 1957-2004: Spatial models of elevated risk of human exposure to Yersinia pestis.external icon J Med Entomol, 44:530-537, 2007.

Enscore, RE, Biggerstaff BJ, Brown TL, Fulgham RF, Reynolds PJ, Engelthaler DM, Levy CE, Parmenter RR, Montenieri JA, Cheek JE, Grinnell RK, Ettestad PJ, and Gage KL. Modeling relationships between climate and the frequency of human plague cases in the southwestern United States, 1960-1997.external icon Am J Trop Med Hyg 66:186-196, 2002.

Plague Surveillance and Control

Gage KL. Plague Surveillance (Chapter 6). Plague Manual.external icon Dennis, DT, Gage KL, Gratz N, Poland JD, and Tikhomirov E. (Principal authors). World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland. pp. 135-165, 1999a.

Gratz NG. Control of Plague Transmission (Chapter 5). Plague Manual.external icon Dennis, OT, Gage KL, Gratz N, Poland JD, and Tikhomirov E. (Principal authors). World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland. pp. 97-134,1999a.

Kwit N, Nelson C, Kugeler K, Petersen J, Plante L, Yaglom H, Kramer V, Schwartz B, House J, Colton L, Feldpausch A, Drenzek C, Baumbach J, DiMenna M, Fisher E, Debess E, Buttke D, Weinburke M, Percy C, Schriefer M, Gage K, Mead P. Human Plague – United States, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Aug 28;64(33):918-9.

Transmission and Risk Management

Hinckley AF, Biggerstaff BJ, Griffith KS, Mead PS. Transmission dynamics of primary pneumonic plague in the USA.external icon Epidemiol Infect. 2011 Jul 7:1-7.

Koirala J. Plague: disease, management, and recognition of act of terrorism.external icon Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2006 Jun;20(2):273-87, viii.

Kool J. Risk of person-to-person transmission of pneumonic plague.external icon Clin Inf Dis 2005;40:1166–72.

Runfola JK, House J, Miller L, Colton L, Hite D, Hawley A, Mead P, Schriefer M, Petersen J, Casaceli C, Erlandson KM, Foster C, Pabilonia KL, Mason G, Douglas JM Jr; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Outbreak of Human Pneumonic Plague with Dog-to-Human and Possible Human-to-Human Transmission–Colorado, June-July 2014MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 May 1;64(16):429-34.

Eisen RJ, Eisen L, Gage KL. Studies of Vector Competency and Efficiency of North American Fleas for Yersinia pestis: State of the Field and Future Research Needs.external icon J. Med Entomol. 2009 July; 46(4): 737-744.


Nelson CA, Meaney-Delman D, Fleck-Derderian S, Cooley KM, Yu PA, Mead PS. Antimicrobial Treatment and Prophylaxis of Plague: Recommendations for Naturally Acquired Infections and Bioterrorism Response. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2021 Jul; 70(3):1-27.

Ansari I, Grier G, Byers M. Deliberate release: Plague – A review.external icon J Biosaf Biosecur. 2020 Mar;2(1):10-22.

Green MS, LeDuc J, Cohen D, Franz DR. Confronting the threat of bioterrorism: realities, challenges, and defensive strategies.external icon Lancet Infect Dis. 2019 Jan;19(1):e2-e13.