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Plague andYersinia pestis

Benedictow, Ole J. 2004. The Black Death 1346-1353: The Complete History. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.

Chase, M. 2003. The Barbary Plague: The Black Death in Victorian San Francisco. New York:Random House.

Dennis, DT, Gage KL, Gratz N, Poland JD, and Tikhomirov E. (Principal authors). Plague Manual.external icon World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland. 172 pp., 1999.

Gross, L. How the plague bacillus and its transmission through fleas were discovered: reminiscences from my years at the Pasteur Institute in Paris.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 August 15; 92(17):7609–7611.

Human plague–four states, 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 Sep 1;55(34):940-3.

Khan, IA. Plague: the dreadful visitation occupying the human mind for centuries.external icon Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004 May;98(5):270-7.

Kugeler KJ, Staples JE, Hinckley AF, Gage KL, Mead PS. Epidemiology of human plague in the United States, 1900–2012.external icon Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Jan.

Stenseth NC, Atshabar BB, Begon M, Belmain SR, Bertherat E, et al. Plague: Past, present, and future. PLoS Med. 2008 5(1): e3.

Rosen, William (2007), Justinian’s Flea: Plague, Empire, and the Birth of Europe. Viking Adult; pg 3; ISBN 978-0-670-03855-8.

Plague Ecology

Gage KL and Kosoy MY. The natural history of Plague: Perspectives from more than a century of research.external icon Ann Rev Entomology. 2005;50:505-528.

Eisen RJ, Enscore RE, Biggerstaff BJ, Reynolds PJ, Ettestad P, Brown T, Pape J, Tanda D, Levy CE, Engelthaler DM, Cheek J, Bueno Jr. R, Targhetta, Montenieri JA, Gage KL. Human plague in the southwestern United States, 1957-2004: Spatial models of elevated risk of human exposure to Yersinia pestis.external icon J Med Entomol, 44:530-537, 2007.

Enscore, RE, Biggerstaff BJ, Brown TL, Fulgham RF, Reynolds PJ, Engelthaler DM, Levy CE, Parmenter RR, Montenieri JA, Cheek JE, Grinnell RK, Ettestad PJ, and Gage KL. Modeling relationships between climate and the frequency of human plague cases in the southwestern United States, 1960-1997.external icon Am J Trop Med Hyg 66:186-196, 2002.

Plague Surveillance and Control

Gage KL. Plague Surveillance (Chapter 6).Plague Manual.external icon Dennis, DT, Gage KL, Gratz N, Poland JD, and Tikhomirov E. (Principal authors). World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland. pp. 135-165, 1999a.

Gratz NG. Control of Plague Transmission (Chapter 5). Plague Manual.external icon Dennis, OT, Gage KL, Gratz N, Poland JD, and Tikhomirov E. (Principal authors). World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland. pp. 97-134,1999a.

Kwit N, Nelson C, Kugeler K, Petersen J, Plante L, Yaglom H, Kramer V, Schwartz B, House J, Colton L, Feldpausch A, Drenzek C, Baumbach J, DiMenna M, Fisher E, Debess E, Buttke D, Weinburke M, Percy C, Schriefer M, Gage K, Mead P. Human Plague – United States, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Aug 28;64(33):918-9.

Transmission and Risk Management

Hinckley AF, Biggerstaff BJ, Griffith KS, Mead PS. Transmission dynamics of primary pneumonic plague in the USA.external icon Epidemiol Infect. 2011 Jul 7:1-7.

Inglesby TV, Henderson DA, O’Toole T, Dennis DT. Safety precautions to limit exposure from plague-infected patients.external icon JAMA 2000;284:1648-1649.

Koirala J. Plague: disease, management, and recognition of act of terrorism.external icon Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2006 Jun;20(2):273-87, viii.

Kool J. Risk of person-to-person transmission of pneumonic plague.external icon Clin Inf Dis 2005;40:1166–72.

Runfola JK, House J, Miller L, Colton L, Hite D, Hawley A, Mead P, Schriefer M, Petersen J, Casaceli C, Erlandson KM, Foster C, Pabilonia KL, Mason G, Douglas JM Jr; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Outbreak of Human Pneumonic Plague with Dog-to-Human and Possible Human-to-Human Transmission–Colorado, June-July 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 May 1;64(16):429-34.


Inglesby TV, Dennis DT, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E, Fine AD, Friedlander AM, Hauer J, Koerner JF, Layton M, McDade J, Osterholm MT, O’Toole T, Parker G, Perl TM, Russell PK, Schoch-Spana M, Tonat K. Plague as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. Working Group on Civilian Biodefense.external icon JAMA 284:2281-2290, 2000.