Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 1314–62–1
NIOSH REL: 0.05 mg V/m3 15-minute CEILING
Current OSHA PEL: 0.5 mg V2O5/m3 (respirable dust) CEILING
1989 OSHA PEL: 0.05 mg V2O5/m3 (respirable dust) TWA
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.05 mg V2O5/m3 (respirable dust) TWA
Description of substance: Yellow-orange powder or dark-gray, odorless flakes dispersed in air.
LEL: . . Noncombustible Solid
Original (SCP) IDLH: 70 mg/m3 (as V2O5)
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the statement by ACGIH  that vanadium pentoxide dust at 70 mg/m3 is fatal to animals within a few hours [Hudson 1964]. AIHA  reported that rabbits succumb from edema of the lungs at 200 mg/m3 after one 7-hour exposure [Sjoberg 1950].
Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
Lethal concentration data:
|Species||Reference||LC50||LCLo||Time||Adjusted 0.5-hr |
|Cat||Faulkner 1964||-----||500 mg/m3||23 min||256 mg V/m3 (0.915)||26 mg V/m3|
|Rat||Izrael'son 1963||-----||70 mg/m3||2 hr||63 mg V/m3 (1.6)||6.3 mg V/m3|
Lethal dose data:
|Adjusted LD||Derived value|
|Rat||Arch Toxikol 1956||oral||10||-----||39 mg V/m3||3.9 mg V/m3|
|Mouse||Izmerov et al. 1982||oral||23||-----||90 mg V/m3||9.0 mg V/m3|
Human data: Respiratory irritation following exposures to V2O5 ranging from 1 to 48 mg V/m3 has been described in workers [Sjoberg 1955]. Vanadium intoxication (i.e., rhinorrhea, sneezing, lacrimation, and sore throat) has been reported in workers exposed to concentrations of V2O5 during the workshift ranging from 10 to 33 mg/m3 [Williams 1952]. Concentrations of V2O5 exceeding 56 mg V/m3 have resulted in local respiratory effects [Vintinner et al. 1955]. Other workers exposed intermittently to 56 mg V/m3 showed no evidence of intoxication [McTurk et al. 1956].
|Revised IDLH: 35 mg V/m3 |
Basis for revised IDLH: Based on acute inhalation toxicity data in workers [McTurk et al. 1956; Sjoberg 1955; Vintinner et al. 1955; Williams 1952], the revised IDLH for vanadium dust is 35 mg V/m3.
1. ACGIH . Vanadium (as V). In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, pp. 275-276.
2. AIHA . Vanadium pentoxide. In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc Q 18:172-173.
3. Arch Toxikol ; 16:182-189 (in German).
4. Faulkner TG . Vanadium toxicology and biological significance. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., p. 72.
5. Hudson TGF . Vanadium: toxicology and biological significance. New York, NY: Elsevier Publishing Company, p. 75.
6. Izmerov NF, Sanotsky IV, Sidorov KK . Toxicometric parameters of industrial toxic chemicals under single exposure. Moscow, Russia: Centre of International Projects, GKNT, p. 119.
7. Izrael'son ZI, ed. . Toxicology of the rare metals. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Program for Scientific Translations.
8. McTurk LC, Hirs CHW, Eckard RE . Health hazards of vanadium-containing residual oil ash. Ind Med Surg 25:29-36.
9. Sjoberg S-G . Vanadium pentoxide dust: a clinical and experimental investigation on its effect after inhalation. Acta Med Scand Suppl 238:81-99.
10. Sjoberg SG . Vanadium bronchitis from cleaning oil-fired boilers. AMA Arch Ind Health 11:505-512.
11. Vintinner FJ, Vallenas R, Carlin CE, Weiss R, Macher C, Ochoa R . Study of the health of workers employed in mining and processing of vanadium ore. AMA Arch Ind Health 12:635-642.
12. Williams N . Vanadium poisoning from cleaning oil-fired boilers. Brit J Ind Med 9:50-55.
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