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May 1994
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)

CAS number: 96–18–4

NIOSH REL: 10 ppm (60 mg/m3) TWA [skin]; NIOSH considers 1,2,3-trichloropropane to be a potential occupational carcinogen as defined by the OSHA carcinogen policy [29 CFR 1990].

Current OSHA PEL: 50 ppm (300 mg/m3) TWA

1989 OSHA PEL: 10 ppm (60 mg/m3) TWA

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 10 ppm (60 mg/m3) TWA [skin]

Description of substance: Colorless liquid with a chloroform-like odor.

LEL(@248°F) : 3.2% (10% LEL(@248°F), 3,200 ppm)

Original (SCP) IDLH: 1,000 ppm

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: UCC [1973] reported that 5 of 6 rats died following a 1-hour exposure to 5,600 ppm. Because several mice died following only a 20-minute exposure to 5,000 ppm [McOmie and Barnes 1949 as cited by ACGIH 1971], 5,000 ppm has not been chosen as the IDLH. The chosen IDLH is based on the rat 4-hour LCLO of 1,000 ppm [Smyth et al. 1962 cited by NIOSH 1976].

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed


Lethal concentration data:

Species Reference LC50




Time Adjusted 0.5-hr


Derived value
Mouse Izmerov et al. 1982 555 ----- 2 hr 888 ppm (1.6) 89 ppm
Mouse McOmie & Barnes 1949 ----- 5,000 20 min 4,350 ppm (0.87) 435 ppm
Rat McOmie & Barnes 1949 LC100: 700 ----- 4 hr 1,400 ppm (2.0) 140 ppm
Mouse McOmie & Barnes 1949 LC100: 700 ----- 4 hr 1,400 ppm (2.0) 140 ppm
Mouse McOmie &Barnes 1949 LC100: 340 ----- 4 hr 680 ppm (2.0) 68 ppm
Rat Smyth et al. 1962 LC83: 1,000 ----- 4 hr 2,000 ppm (2.0) 200 ppm
Rat UCC 1973 LC83: 5,600 ----- 1 hr 7,000 ppm (1.25) 700 ppm

Human data: It has been reported that objectionable ocular and mucosal irritation were experienced after 15 minutes of exposure to 100 ppm [Silverman et al. 1946].

Revised IDLH: 100 ppm

Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for 1,2,3-trichloropropane is 100 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [Silverman et al. 1946]. This may be a conservative value due to the lack of relevant acute toxicity data for workers exposed to concentrations above 100 ppm. [Note: NIOSH recommends as part of its carcinogen policy that the "most protective" respirators be worn for 1,2,3-trichloropropane at concentrations above 10 ppm.]


1. ACGIH [1971]. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, pp. 266-267.

2. Izmerov NF, Sanotsky IV, Sidorov KK [1982]. Toxicometric parameters of industrial toxic chemicals under single exposure. Moscow, Russia: Centre of International Projects, GKNT, p. 114.

3. McOmie WA, Barnes TR [1949]. Acute and subchronic toxicity of 1,2,3-trichloropropane in mice and rabbits. Fed Proc 8:319.

4. NIOSH [1976]. TZ92750. Propane, 1,2,3-trichloro-. In: Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances, 1976 ed. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 76-191, p. 969.

5. Silverman L, Schulte HF, First MW [1946]. Further studies on sensory response to certain industrial solvent vapors. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 28:262-266.

6. Smyth HF Jr, Carpenter CP, Weil CS, Pozzani UC, Striegel JA [1962]. Range finding toxicity data: list VI. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 23:95-107.

7. UCC [1973]. Toxicology studies: 1,2,3-trichloropropane. New York, NY: Union Carbide Corporation.