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May 1994
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)

CAS number: 83–26–1

NIOSH REL: 0.1 mg/m3 TWA

Current OSHA PEL: 0.1 mg/m3 TWA

1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.1 mg/m3 TWA

Description of substance: Bright-yellow powder with almost no odor.

LEL:. . Unknown

Original (SCP) IDLH: 200 mg/m3

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: According to ACGIH [1971], the critical rodenticidal dosages of Pival® (pindone) and warfarin are similar. Therefore, the chosen IDLH is based on an analogy with warfarin which has an IDLH of 200 mg/m3.

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed


Lethal dose data:

Species Reference Route LD50 (mg/kg) LDLo (mg/kg) Adjusted LD Derived value



Gaines 1960

Klimmer 1971

Perkow 1971/1976










1,960 mg/m3

525 mg/m3

1,050 mg/m3

196 mg/m3

53 mg/m3

105 mg/m3

Other animal data: It has been reported that the critical rodenticidal dosages of Pival® (pindone) and warfarin are similar [ACGIH 1971].

Human data: It has been reported that 50 to 500 mg/kg is the probable lethal oral dose [Gosselin et al. 1984]. [Note: An oral dose of 50 to 500 mg/kg is equivalent to a 70-kg worker being exposed to about 2,330 to 23,300 mg/m3 for 30 minutes, assuming a breathing rate of 50 liters per minute and 100% absorption.]

Revised IDLH: 100 mg/m3

Basis for revised IDLH: No inhalation toxicity data are available on which to base an IDLH for pindone. Therefore, the revised IDLH for pindone is 100 mg/m3 based on acute oral toxicity data in humans [Gosselin et al. 1984] and animals [Gaines 1960; Klimmer 1971; Perkow 1971/1976] and an analogy to warfarin [ACGIH 1971] which has a revised IDLH of 100 mg/m3.


1. ACGIH [1971]. Pival (2-pivalyl-1,3-inandione). In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, p. 213.

2. Gaines TB [1960]. The acute toxicity of pesticides to rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2:88-99.

3. Gosselin RG, Smith RP, Hodge HC [1984]. Clinical toxicology of commercial products. 5th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins Company, p. II-348.

4. Klimmer OR [1971]. Pflanzenschutz und schaedlingsbekaempfungsmittel: abriss einer toxikologie und therapy von vergiftungen. 2nd ed. Hattingen, Germany: Hundt-Verlag, p. 118 (in German).

5. Perkow W [1971/1976]. Wirksubstanzen der pflanzenschutz und schadlingsbekampfungsmittel. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey, 1971-1976 (in German).