Skip directly to local search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options
CDC Home
May 1994

Documentation for Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentrations (IDLHs)


CAS number: 83–26–1

NIOSH REL: 0.1 mg/m3 TWA

Current OSHA PEL: 0.1 mg/m3 TWA

1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.1 mg/m3 TWA

Description of substance: Bright-yellow powder with almost no odor.

LEL:. . Unknown

Original (SCP) IDLH: 200 mg/m3

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: According to ACGIH [1971], the critical rodenticidal dosages of Pival® (pindone) and warfarin are similar. Therefore, the chosen IDLH is based on an analogy with warfarin which has an IDLH of 200 mg/m3.

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed


Lethal dose data:


SpeciesReferenceRouteLD50 (mg/kg)LDLo (mg/kg)Adjusted LDDerived value



Gaines 1960

Klimmer 1971

Perkow 1971/1976










1,960 mg/m3

525 mg/m3

1,050 mg/m3

196 mg/m3

53 mg/m3

105 mg/m3

Other animal data: It has been reported that the critical rodenticidal dosages of Pival® (pindone) and warfarin are similar [ACGIH 1971].

Human data: It has been reported that 50 to 500 mg/kg is the probable lethal oral dose [Gosselin et al. 1984]. [Note: An oral dose of 50 to 500 mg/kg is equivalent to a 70-kg worker being exposed to about 2,330 to 23,300 mg/m3 for 30 minutes, assuming a breathing rate of 50 liters per minute and 100% absorption.]


Revised IDLH: 100 mg/m3

Basis for revised IDLH: No inhalation toxicity data are available on which to base an IDLH for pindone. Therefore, the revised IDLH for pindone is 100 mg/m3 based on acute oral toxicity data in humans [Gosselin et al. 1984] and animals [Gaines 1960; Klimmer 1971; Perkow 1971/1976] and an analogy to warfarin [ACGIH 1971] which has a revised IDLH of 100 mg/m3.


1. ACGIH [1971]. Pival (2-pivalyl-1,3-inandione). In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, p. 213.

2. Gaines TB [1960]. The acute toxicity of pesticides to rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2:88-99.

3. Gosselin RG, Smith RP, Hodge HC [1984]. Clinical toxicology of commercial products. 5th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins Company, p. II-348.

4. Klimmer OR [1971]. Pflanzenschutz und schaedlingsbekaempfungsmittel: abriss einer toxikologie und therapy von vergiftungen. 2nd ed. Hattingen, Germany: Hundt-Verlag, p. 118 (in German).

5. Perkow W [1971/1976]. Wirksubstanzen der pflanzenschutz und schadlingsbekampfungsmittel. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey, 1971-1976 (in German).

Contact Us: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329-4027, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO