Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 8006-64-2
NIOSH REL: 100 ppm (560 mg/m3) TWA
Current OSHA PEL: 100 ppm (560 mg/m3) TWA
1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 100 ppm (556 mg/m3) TWA
Description of substance: Colorless liquid with a characteristic odor.
LEL: . . 0.8% (10% LEL, 800 ppm)
Original (SCP) IDLH: 1,500 ppm
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the known human lethal concentration of 1,878 ppm [Albaugh 1915 in Jacobs as cited by AIHA 1971], the mouse LC50 of 1,620 ppm, and the reported effects to human subjects after several hours of exposure to 750 to 1,000 ppm [Lehmann and Flury 1943 as cited by ACGIH 1971]. AIHA  reported that 1,878 ppm for 1 to 4 hours is definitely toxic to man [Jacobs 1949]. The effects of turpentine on the eyes and central nervous system at concentrations above 1,500 ppm might impede escape in the event of respirator failure.
Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
Lethal concentration data:
|Species||Reference||LC50||LCLo||Time||Adjusted 0.5-hr |
|Sperling & Collins 1964 |
Sperling et al. 1967
|29,000 mg/m3 |
|2 hr |
|8,212 ppm (1.6) |
4,885 ppm (2.3)
|821 ppm |
Lethal dose data:
|Adjusted LD||Derived value|
|Rat||Skramlik 1959||oral||5,760||-----||7,136 ppm||714 ppm|
Human data: Exposure of volunteers for several hours at 750 to 1,000 ppm resulted in irritation of the eyes, headache, dizziness, nausea, and acceleration of the pulse [Lehmann and Flury 1943]. The lethal concentration has been reported to be 1,878 ppm [Albaugh 1915].
|Revised IDLH: 800 ppm |
Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for turpentine is 800 ppm based on acute toxicity data in humans [Lehmann and Flury 1943] and animals [Skramlik 1959; Sperling and Collins 1964]. Also, this value is 10% of the lower explosive limit of 0.8%.
1. ACGIH . Turpentine. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, p. 274.
2. AIHA . Turpentine. In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 28:297-300.
3. Albaugh . Ohio Public Health J 6:512.
4. Jacobs MB . The analytical chemistry of industrial poisons, hazards and solvents. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Interscience Publishers, Inc., p. 553.
5. Lehmann KB, Flury F, eds. . Toxicology and hygiene of industrial solvents. Translated by E. King and H.F. Smyth, Jr. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins Company, pp. 295-297.
6. Skramlik EV . Über die fiftigkeit und verträglichkeit von ätherischen ölen. Pharmazie 14:435-445 (in German).
7. Sperling F, Collins C . Inhalation and intravenous toxicity of turpentine in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 6:360 [Abstract].
8. Sperling F, Marcus WL, Collins C . Acute effects of turpentine vapor on rats and mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 10:8-20.
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