Documentation for Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentrations (IDLHs)
Antimony compounds (as Sb)
CAS number: 7440-36-0 (Metal)
NIOSH REL: 0.5 mg Sb/m3 TWA
Current OSHA PEL: 0.5 mg Sb/m3 TWA
1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.5 mg Sb/m3 TWA
Description of substance: Varies
Original (SCP) IDLH: 80 mg Sb/m3
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: AIHA  reported that the severity of hazard is moderate to high for both acute and chronic exposures to antimony and its compounds. Brieger et al.  noted an apparent increase in heart abnormalities in workers chronically exposed to antimony trisulfide (0.6 to 5.5 mg/m3) and demonstrated heart injury in experimental animals. The chosen IDLH is based on the report by Taylor  that slightly delayed gastrointestinal disorders, including abdominal pain and persistent anorexia, were noted in workers briefly exposed to air containing up to 73 mg/m3 of antimony.
Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed
ACUTE TOXICITY DATALethal concentration data:
|Mouse||Chekunova and Minkina 1987||720 mg/m3||-----||?||?||?|
|Rat||Izmerov et al. 1982||720 mg/m3||-----||2 hr||469 mg Sb/m3||47 mg Sb/m3|
Lethal dose data:
|Rat||Coulston and Korte 1975||oral||7,500||-----||49,000 mg Sb/m3||4,900 mg Sb/m3|
|Rat||Smyth and Carpenter 1948||oral||20,000||-----||117,600 mg Sb/m3||11,760 mg Sb/m3|
|Rat||Arzamastev 1964||oral||1,115||-----||3,179 mg Sb/m3||318 mg Sb/m3|
|G.pig||Arzamastev 1964||oral||900||-----||2,566 mg Sb/m3||257 mg Sb/m3|
Human data: Antimony pentachloride (SbCl5) is considered to be the most toxic of the antimony chlorides [ACGIH 1991]. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) TLV for antimony is based on an analogy to hydrogen chloride [ACGIH 1991].
Revised IDLH: 50 mg Sb/m3
Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for antimony compounds is 50 mg Sb/m3 based on acute inhalation toxicity data in animals [Izmerov et al. 1982] and an analogy to hydrogen chloride [ACGIH 1991] which has a revised IDLH of 50 ppm (75 mg/m3).
- ACGIH . Antimony and compounds. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, pp. 73-75.
- AIHA . Antimony and its compounds (excepting stibine). In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc Q 20:515-516.
- Arzamastsev EV . Experimental substantiation of the permissible concentrations of tri- and pentavalent antimony in water bodies. Gig Sanit 29(12):16-21 (translated).
- Brieger H, Semisch CW, Stasney J, Piatek DA . Industrial antimony poisoning. Ind Med Surg 23:521-523.
- Chekunova MP, Minkina MA . Toxicity of pentachlorinated antimony in a chronic experiment. Gig Tr Prof Zabol 13(10):25-29 (in Russian).
- Coulston F, Korte F, eds. . Heavy metal toxicity, safety and hormology. In: Environmental Quality & Safety, Supplement 1. New York, NY: Georg Thieme Publishers, pp. 1-120.
- Izmerov NF, Sanotsky IV, Sidorov KK . Toxicometric parameters of industrial toxic chemicals under single exposure. Moscow, Russia: Centre of International Projects, GKNT, p. 22.
- Smyth HF Jr, Carpenter CP . Further experience with the range finding test in the industrial toxicology laboratory. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 30(1):63-68.
- Taylor PJ . Acute intoxication from antimony trichloride. Br J Ind Med 23(4):318-321.
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