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Toluene, 2,4,6 - trinitro -

RTECS #: XU0175000

CAS #: 118-96-7


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 227.15 MF: C7H5N3O6


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 2,4,6 - Trinitrotolueen (Dutch)
  2. 2,4,6 - Trinitrotoluene
  3. 2,4,6 - Trinitrotoluene (ACGIH:OSHA)
  4. 2,4,6 - Trinitrotoluol (German)
  5. 2 - Methyl - 1,3,5 - trinitrobenzene
  6. Benzene, 2 - methyl - 1,3,5 - trinitro -
  7. Entsufon
  8. NCI - C56155
  9. TNT
  10. TNT (OSHA)
  11. TNT - tolite (French)
  12. Tolit
  1. Tolite
  2. Trinitrotoluene
  3. Tritol
  4. Triton
  5. Trojnitrotoluen (Polish)
  6. Trotyl
  7. Trotyl oil
  8. alpha - TNT
  9. s - Trinitrotoluene
  10. s - Trinitrotoluol
  11. sym - Trinitrotoluene
  12. sym - Trinitrotoluol


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
skin
rabbit
500 mg/24 hour mild NTIS** AD-B011-150


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
body fluid assay rat
Salmonella typhimurium
50 mg/kg MUREAV 262,167,1991
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 10 g/plate (+/-enzymatic activation step) NTIS** AD-A080-146
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 40 mg/L CALEDQ 20,103,1983
specific locus test hamster ovary 30 ppm/5 hour (+/-enzymatic activation step) JJATDK 20,441,2000


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 2,250 mg/kg (13 week male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct WDZAEK 8,89,1994
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg (5 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) WDZAEK 5,282,1991
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,376 mg/kg (28 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct JTEHD6 9,565,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,600 mg/kg (2 week male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
NEZAAQ 55,129,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,400 mg/kg (8 week male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct WDZAEK 8,25,1994


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Vascular: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
ARTODN 79,705,2005
oral
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 1,850 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, allergic
MRCSAB 58,32,1921
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 28 gm/kg Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
34ZIAG -,610,1969
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 660 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
JTEHD6 9,565,1982
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 660 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* -,391,2005
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 607 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Inflammation, necrosis or scarring of bladder
IJTOFN 19,169,2000
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 795 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* -,391,2005
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
MRCSAB 58,32,1921
subcutaneous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, allergic
MRCSAB 58,32,1921
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
MRCSAB 58,32,1921


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
domestic bird
lowest published toxic dose: 3,400 mg/kg/17 day- intermittent Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Ataxia

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
IJTOFN 24,221,2005
oral
domestic bird
lowest published toxic dose: 6,200 mg/kg/31 day- intermittent Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Ataxia

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
IJTOFN 24,221,2005
oral
domestic bird
lowest published toxic dose: 4,200 mg/kg/60 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Hemorrhage
IJTOFN 24,221,2005
oral
domestic bird
lowest published toxic dose: 2,000 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain IJTOFN 24,221,2005
oral
domestic bird
lowest published toxic dose: 7,200 mg/kg/60 day- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Decreased motility or constipation

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
IJTOFN 24,221,2005
oral
domestic bird
lowest published toxic dose: 7,200 mg/kg/60 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight IJTOFN 24,221,2005
oral
domestic bird
lowest published toxic dose: 12,000 mg/kg/60 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) IJTOFN 24,221,2005
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 182 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTEHD6 9,565,1982
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 1,456 mg/kg/26 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Changes in spleen
TXCYAC 63,233,1990
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 11 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in spleen
JTEHD6 9,565,1982
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,600 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
JOCHFV 40,276,1998
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) WDZAEK 6,135,1992
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7,700 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight IJTOFN 19,5,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 924 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response IJTOFN 19,5,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,962 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen
IJTOFN 19,5,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,030 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Blood: Changes in spleen IJTOFN 19,5,2000
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 1,358 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOXID9 54,29,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 531 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Inflammation, necrosis or scarring of bladder

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
IJTOFN 19,169,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,200 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TOLED5 55,343,1991
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 11,375 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 32,253,1984
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg/30 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Monoamine oxidase

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
GTPZAB 18(10),57,1974
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 4,550 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Blood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
NEZAAQ 18,175,1963
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,800 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol) WDZAEK 6,75,1992


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 65,449,1996
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 65,449,1996
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 65,449,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NTIS** AD778-725
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 1(1),93,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PAREAQ 4,1,1952
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 134,17,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,391,2005


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 0.2 ppm (0.5 mg/m3) (skin) DTLVS* 3,270,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 1.50 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 1.50 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 1.50 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 1.50 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 3 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 0.09 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.36 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 0.1 mg/m3, skin, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 0.1 mg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 1.5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 1 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 3 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.5 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 0.2 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.01 ppm (0.1 mg/m3),KZG- week 0.02 ppm (0.2 mg/m3), Skin, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 1.5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (skin)
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (skin)


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (Sk) NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 74550;
Number of Industries 2;
Total Number of Facilities 10;
Number of Occupations 1;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 31


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/95/264297/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as an explosive
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #44


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

34ZIAG "Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
CALEDQ Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CRTXB2 CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. (CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431) V.1- 1971-
DIMON* Disease-a Month (Chicago : Year Book Publishers) V. 24- 1978-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
IJTOFN International Journal of Toxicology. (Taylor & Francis, 47 Runway Rd., Suite g, Levittown, PA 19057) V.16- 1997-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
JOCHFV Journal of Occupational Health. (Japan Society for Occupational Health, 1-29-8 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160, Japan) V.38- 1996-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
MRCSAB Special Report Series--Medical Research Council (United Kingdom). (Her Majesty's Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, UK) No.1- 1915-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NEZAAQ Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene. (Nippon Eisei Gakkai, c/o Kyoto Daigaku Igakubu, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606, Japan) V.1- 1946-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
PAREAQ Pharmacological Reviews. (Williams & Wilkins, 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1949-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
WDZAEK Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi. Journal of Health Toxicology. (Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi Bianjibu, Dongdaqiao, Chaoyang Menwai, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) V.1- 1987

Used as an explosive

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

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