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Potassium cyanide

RTECS #: TS8750000

CAS #: 151-50-8


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 65.12 MF: CKN


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  5. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  6. REVIEWS:
  7. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  8. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  9. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  10. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Cyanide of potassium
  2. Cyanure de potassium (French)
  3. Hydrocyanic acid, potassium salt
  1. KCN
  2. Potassium cyanide (ACGIH)
  3. RCRA waste number P098


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 70 mg/L/24 hour MUREAV 537,117,2003
cytogenetic analysis mouse mammary gland 1 mmol/L/48 hour MUREAV 67,221,1979
DNA damage rat liver 300 mol/L MUREAV 368,59,1996
DNA damage rat other cell types 5 mmol/L/6 hour TOLED5 128,185,2002
DNA inhibition mouse lymphocyte 1 mmol/L NEOLA4 28,423,1981
DNA repair Escherichia coli 39 g/well MUREAV 133,161,1984


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 45 mg/kg (1-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TJADAB 25(2),84A,1982
oral
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 1,767 mg/kg (8-20 week pregnant/44 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects
RJARAV 16,109,1978
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 65 gm/kg (14 day prior to copulation/1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility BNEOBV 36,233,1979


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraarterial
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 5 mg/kg N/R AEPPAE 131,171,1928
intramuscular
pigeon
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 mg/kg N/R JJPAAZ 3,99,1954
intramuscular
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 8 mg/kg N/R 27ZIAQ -,209,1973
intramuscular
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,256 g/kg N/R JACTDZ 1(3),120,1982
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 8 mg/kg N/R CRSBAW 96,202,1927
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg/3 minute Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
VCVN1* -,342,1988
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5.7 mg/kg N/R TOLED5 132,95,2002
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes JAPYAA 32,315,1972
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function NETEEC 23,157,2001
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS
FCTOD7 42,605,2004
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,972 g/kg Blood: Other changes TOXID9 3,64,1983
intravenous
cat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,200 g/kg N/R PSEBAA 35,316,1936
intravenous
cat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction
EKFAE9 57,60,1994
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 5 mg/kg N/R 27ZIAQ -,209,1973
intravenous
dog
lethal dose : 1.12 mg/kg/2.8 minute Cardiac: Change in rate

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction
CTOXAO 44,5,2006
intravenous
domestic animal
lowest published lethal dose: 10 mg(CN)/kg/11 minute N/R VCVN1* -,342,1988
intravenous
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 5 mg/kg N/R AEPPAE 131,171,1928
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,600 g/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
JJPAAZ 3,99,1954
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg Behavioral: Coma BPBLEO 30,514,2007
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2.6 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* ,706,2005
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,600 g/kg Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
DDREDK 5,225,1985
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 140 g/kg Cardiac: Change in rate

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section
BJMRDK 38,967,2005
ocular
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7,870 g/kg Eye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
JTOTDO 2,119,1983
oral
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg Behavioral: Sleep

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
JAPTO* 25,445,2005
oral
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
JAPTO* 25,445,2005
oral
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase
JAPTO* 25,445,2005
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 2,857 g/kg N/R 34ZIAG -,191,1969
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 13,699 g/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Coma

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosis
JTCTDW 25,121,1987
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 8,500 g/kg N/R JPETAB 161,163,1968
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5 mg/kg N/R ARTODN 54,275,1983
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6 mg/kg Behavioral: Tetany

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction
VCVN1* -,342,1988
oral
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5 mg/kg N/R 27ZIAQ -,209,1973
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section
AJEMEN 1,94,1983
parenteral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6.7 mg/kg/24 hour N/R ENTOX* -,698,2005
subcutaneous
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold ATXKA8 21,89,1965
subcutaneous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 60 mg/kg N/R AIPTAK 3,77,1897
subcutaneous
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 8 mg/kg N/R CRSBAW 96,202,1927
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6,500 g/kg N/R NYKZAU 54,1057,1958
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on cyclic nucleotides
TXCYAC 179,29,2002
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7,814 g/kg N/R ATSUDG 14,231,1991
subcutaneous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes JJPAAZ 3,99,1954
subcutaneous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6 mg/kg N/R TOLED5 132,95,2002
skin
human
lowest published lethal dose: 80 pph N/R VCVN1* -,342,1988
skin
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 1 pph/1 hour N/R VCVN1* -,343,1988
unreported route
human
lowest published lethal dose: 1.71 mg/kg N/R VCVN1* -,342,1988


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intramuscular
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 168 mg/kg/20 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes
FCTOD7 40,1693,2002
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 72 mg/kg/12 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes TOXID9 36(1 Pt2),15,1997
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function NETEEC 23,157,2001
oral
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 483 mg/kg/23 week- intermittent Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tremor
FCTOD7 40,1693,2002
oral
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 193.2 mg/kg/23 week- intermittent Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Hemorrhage
FCTOD7 40,1693,2002
oral
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 56 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
JAPTO* 25,445,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 288 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TSUMEZ 15,219,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 31,500 mg/kg/50 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTEHD6 5,579,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14,420 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOLED5 57,195,1991
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.2 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 174,87,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 174,87,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 126 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 174,87,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.5 mg/kg/15 day- intermittent Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction TXCYAC 174,87,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 45 mg/kg/15 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction
TXCYAC 174,87,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 135 mg/kg/15 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 174,87,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 54.6 mg/kg/91 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
EESADV 53,37,2002
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 45 gm/kg/6 week- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
CBPCEE 109,215,1994
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 84 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Rigidity (includes catalepsy)

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum
TXAPA9 126,156,1994
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 11 mg/kg/22 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Demyelination

Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes
VCVN1* -,343,1988


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3 (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,698,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,661,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: Cancelled RBREV* -,257,1998
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3 CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM short term exposure limit 5 mg/m3, Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK ceiling concentration 5 mg(CN)/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE CME 5 mg(CN)/m3, Skin, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 5 mg/m3 (inhalable), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 2 mg(CN)/m3 (inhalable), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3, short term exposure limit 20 mg(CN)/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit- continuous 5 mg(CN)/m3, skin, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO peak 5 mg/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3, skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND time-weighted average 0.3 mg(CN)/m3, CEILING 10 mg(CN)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 5 mg/m3,KZG- week 5 mg/m3, Skin, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3 (skin), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3 (skin)
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3 (skin)


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CYANIDE-air ceiling concentration 4.7 ppm(CN)/10 minute NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 60400;
Number of Industries 45;
Total Number of Facilities 2,204;
Number of Occupations 30;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 12,274
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 60400;
Number of Industries 57;
Total Number of Facilities 4,594;
Number of Occupations 47;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 64,238;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 23,645


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/98/101207/AS)
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Cyanides (aerosol and gas), 7904


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

27ZIAQ "Drug Dosages in Laboratory Animals - A Handbook," Rev. ed., Barnes, C.D., and L.G. Eltherington, Berkeley, Univ. of California Press, 1973
34ZIAG "Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AIPTAK Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. (Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium) V.4- 1898-
AJEMEN American Journal of Emergency Medicine. (WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA) V.1- 1983-
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
ATSUDG Archives of Toxicology, Supplement. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) No.1- 1978-
ATXKA8 Archiv fuer Toxikologie. (Berlin, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.15-31, 1954-74. For publisher information, see ARTODN.
BJMRDK Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. (Associacao Brasileira de Divulgacao Cientifica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, USP, 141000 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil) V.14- 1981-
BNEOBV Biology of the Neonate. (S. Karger Pub., Inc., 79 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10003) V.15- 1970-
BPBLEO Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. (Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 2-12-15-201 Shibuya Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan) V.16- 1993-
CBPCEE Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, C: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology. (Elsevier Science, 660 White Plains Rd., Tarrytown, NY 10591) V.74- 1983-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CRSBAW Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Ses Filiales. (SPPIF, B.P.22, F-41353 Vineuil, France) V.1- 1849-
CTOXAO Clinical Toxicology. (New York, NY) V.1-18, 1968-81. For publisher information, see JTCTDW.
DDREDK Drug Development Research. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1981-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EESADV Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1977-
EKFAE9 Eksperimental'naya i Klinicheskaya Farmakologiya. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. (Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, ul. B. Yakimanka, 39, 117049 Moscow, Russia) V.55- 1992-
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
FNSCA6 Forensic Science. (Lausanne, Switzerland) V.1-11, 1972-78. For pub lisher information, see FSINDR.
HUTOX*
JACTDZ Journal of the American College of Toxicology. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 1651 Third Ave., New York, NY 10128) V.1-12, 1982-1993. Discontinued.
JAPTO* Journal of Applied Toxicology (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Oldlands Way Bognor Regis West Sussex, PO22 9SA England) V.1- 1981-
JAPYAA Journal of Applied Physiology. (Bethesda, MD) V.1-41, 1948-76.
JJPAAZ Japanese Journal of Pharmacology. (Japanese Pharmacological Soc., c/o Dept. of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto Univ., Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606, Japan) V.1- 1951-
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10-
JTCTDW Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.19- 1982-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
JTOTDO Journal of Toxicology, Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.1- 1982-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NEOLA4 Neoplasma. (Karger-Libri, P.O. Box, CH-4009 Basel, Switzerland) V.4- 1957-
NETEEC Neurotoxicology and Teratology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.9- 1987-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NYKZAU Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Pharmacology. (Nippon Yakuri Gakkai, c/o Kyoto Daigaku Igakubu Yakurigaku Kyoshitsu, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606, Japan) V.40- 1944-
PSEBAA Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1903/04-
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
RJARAV Rhodesian Journal of Agricultural Research. (Salisbury, Rhodesia) V.1-17, 1963-79.
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TSUMEZ Toxic Substance Mechanisms. (Taylor & Francis, 1900 Frost Rd., Suite 101, Bristol, PA 19007) V.14- 1995-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VCVN1* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov I-IV groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing I-IV group elements), Filov V.A., Chimia, 1988.

NIOSH PROFILE (PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESSING), FIRL, 4/78

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