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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Nickel

RTECS #

QR5950000

CAS #

7440-02-0

Updated

December 2013

Molecular Weight

58.71

Molecular Formula

Ni

Synonyms

Alcan 756
C.I. 77775
Carbonyl nickel powder
EL12
Fibrex
Fibrex P
Ni 0901-S
Ni 270
Ni 4303T
Nichel (Italian)
Nickel 270
Nickel particles
Nickel sponge
Nickel, metal
Nickel, metal (ACGIH:OSHA)
NP 2
Raney alloy
Raney nickel

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
morphological transformkidney/hamster400 mg/LIAPUDO 53,193,1984
morphological transformembryo/hamster5 µmol/LTOXID9 1,132,1981

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat 158 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
AEHLAU 23,102,1971

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
implant/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 165 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Uterine tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JNCIAM 16,55,1955
implant/rat lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JNCIAM 16,55,1955
implant/rat toxic dose: 23 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JNCIAM 16,55,1955
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 15 mg/m3/91W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma
AMPLAO 65,600,1958
intramuscular/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/21W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PWPSA8 14,68,1971
intramuscular/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
NCIUS* PH43-64-886
intramuscular/mouse toxic dose: 800 mg/kg/13W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
NCIUS* PH43-64-886
intramuscular/rat toxic dose: 90 mg/kg/18W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
NCIUS* PH43-64-886
intramuscular/rat toxic dose: 889 µg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JPTLAS 97,375,1969
intramuscular/rat toxic dose: 125 mg/kg/13W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
NCIUS* PH43-64-886
intramuscular/rat toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/21W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PWPSA8 14,68,1971
intramuscular/rat toxic dose: 1 gm/kg/17W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PAACA3 9,28,1968
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 56 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
IAPUDO 53,127,1984
intramuscular/rat toxic dose: 58 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PAACA3 17,11,1976
intrapleural/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg/21W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PWPSA8 16,150,1973
intrapleural/rat toxic dose: 1250 mg/kg/17W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
TRBMAV 10,167,1952
intrapleural/rat toxic dose: 125 mg/kg/21W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
PWPSA8 16,150,1973
parenteral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg/52W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Uterine tumors
AEHLAU 5,445,1962
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/6W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JNCIAM 16,55,1955

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/2HImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseVCVN5* -,490,1989
intraperitoneal/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 7 mg/kgNTIS** PB158-508
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 250 mg/kgVascular: Regional or general arteriolar or venous dilation

Liver: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
INMEAF 15,482,1946
intratracheal/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kgLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase
VCVN5* -,490,1989
intratracheal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 12 mg/kgNTIS** AEC-TR-6710
intratracheal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 20 mg/kgVCVN5* -,491,1989
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Blood: Hemorrhage

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVN5* -,491,1989
intravenous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kgVCVN5* -,491,1989
intravenous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria
FATOAO 23,549,1960
oral/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 5 mg/kgYAKUD5 22,455,1980
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
VCVN5* -,490,1989
oral/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changesVCVN5* -,490,1989
oral/rat lowest published lethal dose: 5 gm/kgFDRLI* 7684D,1983
oral/rat lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changesVCVN5* -,490,1989
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
VCVN5* -,490,1989
subcutaneous/cat lowest published lethal dose: 12500 µg/kgNTIS** PB158-508
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 7500 µg/kgNTIS** PB158-508
Tank with water/Daphnia lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 130 µg/L/48HTIVIEQ 31,125,1995
Tank with water/Urchin lowest published toxic concentration: 0.4 mg/L/48HReproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesTIVIEQ 39,247,1997

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 1700 µg/m3/6H/5W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
ENVRAL 26,353,1981
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 130 µg/m3/6H/35W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
ENVRAL 30,89,1983
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/m3/6H/26W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesENVRAL 23,170,1980
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/m3/6H/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Blood: Hemorrhage
EXMPA6 41,26,1984
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 30 mg/m3/10M/30D- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
VCVN5* -,493,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 mg/m3/24H/6W- continuousVascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
VCVN5* -,494,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 mg/m3/24H/13W- continuousVascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
VCVN5* -,494,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/2W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVN5* -,495,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 100 µg/m3/24H/17W- continuousLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
GISAAA 39(11),8,1974
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.4 mg/m3/40W- intermittentVascular: Thromobosis distant from injection site

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 233,262,2008
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
FATOAO 23,549,1960
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/5D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVN5* -,492,1989
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg/5D- intermittentSkin and Appendages: Other: HairVCVN5* -,492,1989
intravenous/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
FATOAO 23,549,1960
intravenous/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 1250 mg/kg/5D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVN5* -,492,1989
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
FATOAO 23,549,1960
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/5D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVN5* -,492,1989
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 59 mg/kg/5D- intermittentSkin and Appendages: Other: HairVCVN5* -,492,1989
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
FATOAO 23,549,1960
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
FATOAO 23,549,1960
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 36.5 gm/kg/2Y- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOXID9 66,219,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 36.5 gm/kg/2Y- continuousCardiac: Changes in heart weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight
TOXID9 66,219,2002

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 1.5 mg/m3 (inhal)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Not suspected as a human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 49,257,1990
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMSUDL 7,264,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 49,257,1990
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMEMDT 49,257,1990
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWACLSCP 3,156,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMAERE* 51,247,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWKOTTAM 11,1300,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMIBUBI 9,321,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTXAV 9,105,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW85DHAX Ni,168,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW85CVA2 5,63,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW31BYAP -,93,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTIS** CONF-691001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWGSAMAQ 123,109,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPEXTAR 12,102,1969
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDICHAK 54,527,1968
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAMTODM 3,209,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCREOH* 42,93,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,63,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 134,17,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 33,215,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 613,103,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJJATDK 26,191,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,220,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 544,305,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 23,297,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHBTME* ,743,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 544,313,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWITODC* -,355,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,515,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,93,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,3,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,36,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,73,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPTPAD4 113,229,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 22,91,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,225,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,727,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,11,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 746,113,2012

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3DTLWS* 3,24,1973
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIATRK-TMW 0.5 mg/m3;KZW 2 mg/m3, inhal, sen, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 1 mg/m3, C3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.1 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3 (dust), carc, sen, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANa2 sen, s1 sen, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, sen, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 1,5 mg/m3, JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 0.25 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 0.05 mg/m3, Carcinogen, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (total dust), Sen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.5 mg/m3, carc 3, inhal, sen, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 1 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.5 mg(Ni)/m3, skin, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 1 mg(Ni)/m3CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO NICKEL, INORGANIC-air10H Carcinogen time-weighted average 0.015 mg(Ni)/m3NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X5096; Number of Industries 2; Total Number of Facilities 7; Number of Occupations 4; Total Number of Employees Exposed 110
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X5918; Number of Industries 14; Total Number of Facilities 678; Number of Occupations 17; Total Number of Employees Exposed 6440; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 611
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X5986; Number of Industries 14; Total Number of Facilities 1124; Number of Occupations 15; Total Number of Employees Exposed 10233; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 80
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X8294; Number of Industries 1; Total Number of Facilities 9; Number of Occupations 1; Total Number of Employees Exposed 611
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 50420; Number of Industries 260; Total Number of Facilities 32771; Number of Occupations 116; Total Number of Employees Exposed 507681; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 19673
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 50420; Number of Industries 55; Total Number of Facilities 1867; Number of Occupations 52; Total Number of Employees Exposed 23272

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/98/101199/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Elements by ICP, 7300
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Elements in blood or tissue, 8005
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Metals in urine, 8310
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID125G
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