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Malononitrile, o - chlorobenzylidene -

RTECS #: OO3675000

CAS #: 2698-41-1


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 188.62 MF: C10H5ClN2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. (o - Chlorobenzal) malononitrile
  2. 2 - Chlorobenzalmalononitrile
  3. 2 - Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile
  4. 2 - Chlorobmn
  5. CS
  6. NCI - C55118
  7. Propanedinitrile, ( (2 - chlorophenyl) methylene)
  1. TL 238
  2. USAF KF - 11
  3. beta,beta - Dicyano - o - chlorostyrene
  4. o - Chlorobenzalmalononitrile
  5. o - Chlorobenzylidene malonitrile
  6. o - Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile
  7. o - Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (ACGIH:OSHA)


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
guinea pig
429 ng N/R APTOA6 35,412,1974
eye
man
0.5 ppm/20S severe MMEDA9 134,219,1969
eye
man
624 ng severe APTOA6 35,412,1974
eye
rabbit
5 mg severe TXAPA9 4,656,1962
eye
rabbit
1 mg mild TXAPA9 17,295,1970
eye
rabbit
1,150 ng mild APTOA6 35,412,1974
skin
guinea pig
12%/6 hour open irritation test mild ARTODN 40,75,1978
skin
human
10 mg/1 hour mild BJDEAZ 90,657,1974
skin
rat
12%/6 hour open irritation test mild ARTODN 40,75,1978
skin
rabbit
12%/6 hour open irritation test mild ARTODN 40,75,1978


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 6 mg/L NTPTR* NTP-TR-377,1990
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 9,400 nmol/L MUREAV 282,231,1992
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 100 g/plate (+/-enzymatic activation step) ARTODN 49,15,1981
micronucleus test hamster lung 19 mol/L ARTODN 63,314,1989
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 2,500 g/L EMMUEG 11,91,1988
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 10 mg/L NTPTR* NTP-TR-377,1990
sister chromatid exchange hamster lung 18,800 nmol/L MUREAV 282,231,1992


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 6 mg/m3/5 minute (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) 37QLAZ -,79,1977


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lowest published lethal concentration: 2,600 mg/m3/23 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes FEPRA7 30(1),86,1971
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published lethal concentration: 2,326 mg/m3/10 minute Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Blood: Hemorrhage
ARTODN 40,75,1978
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 g/m3/90 minute Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AEHLAU 6,366,1963
inhalation
mouse
lowest published lethal concentration: 2,753 mg/m3/20 minute Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Blood: Hemorrhage
ARTODN 40,75,1978
inhalation
rat
lowest published lethal concentration: 1,806 mg/m3/45 minute Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Blood: Hemorrhage
ARTODN 40,75,1978
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published lethal concentration: 1,802 mg/m3/10 minute Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Blood: Hemorrhage
ARTODN 40,75,1978
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 73 mg/kg Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
ARTODN 40,75,1978
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 32,320 g/kg Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response TOLED5 8,73,1981
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 48 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 24,45,1973
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 32,065 g/kg Blood: Other changes TOXID9 3,64,1983
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 47,700 g/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TXAPA9 25,111,1973
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 48 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* ,706,2005
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 28 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
ARTODN 40,75,1978
intravenous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 8 mg/kg Eye: Lacrimation

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
TXAPA9 4,656,1962
oral
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 212 mg/kg Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
ARTODN 40,75,1978
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 282 mg/kg N/R NTIS** AD837-111
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 178 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Gastritis AEHLAU 24,449,1972
oral
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 143 mg/kg Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
ARTODN 40,75,1978
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose : >800 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 4,656,1962


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/6 hour/14 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field NTPTR* NTP-TR-377,1990
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-377,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 mg/m3/6 hour/14 day- intermittent Eye: Lacrimation

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-377,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 g/m3/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* NTP-TR-377,1990
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 160 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
BECTA6 26,571,1981


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value ceiling concentration 0.05 ppm (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CPEMM* 3,239,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,686,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,706,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,50,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA ceiling concentration 0.05 ppm (0.39 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK ceiling concentration 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE short term exposure limit 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), Skin, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA ceiling concentration 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO peak 0.5 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) (skin), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC- continuous 0.4 mg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND ceiling concentration 0.05 ppm (0.39 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.05 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), Skin, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Not classifiable as human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Not classifiable as human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO o-CHLOROBENZYLIDENEMALONONITRILE-air ceiling concentration 0.05 ppm (Sk) NIOSH* DHHS #95-121,1995


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as a riot control agent
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (inhal);no evidence:mouse,rat


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

37QLAZ "Current Approaches in Toxicology," Ballantyne, B., ed., Bristol, UK, John Wright & Sons, Ltd., 1977
AEHLAU Archives of Environmental Health. (Heldref Pub., 4000 Albemarle St., NW, Washington, DC 20016) V.1- 1960-
APTOA6 Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. (Copenhagen, Denmark) V.1-59, 1945-86. For publisher information, see PHTOEH
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
BECTA6 Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1966-
BJDEAZ British Journal of Dermatology. (Blackwell Scientific Pub. Ltd., POB 88, Oxford, UK) V.63- 1951-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CPEMM* Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine (Philadelphia, PA : W.B. Saunders Co.)
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
FEPRA7 Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. (Bethesda, MD) V.1-46, 1942-87.
MMEDA9 Military Medicine. (Assoc. of Military Surgeons of the United States, Box 104, Kensington, MD 20795) V.116- 1955-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-

Used as a riot control agent

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

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