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Lead

RTECS #: OF7525000

CAS #: 7439-92-1


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 207.19 MF: Pb


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  5. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  6. REVIEWS:
  7. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  8. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  9. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  10. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. C.I. 77575
  2. C.I. Pigment Metal 4
  3. Glover
  4. KS - 4
  5. Lead (ACGIH)
  6. Lead S2
  1. Lead flake
  2. Lead inorganic
  3. Lead inorganic (OSHA)
  4. Olow (Polish)
  5. Omaha & grant


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis unreported route
human
50 g/m3 MUREAV 147,301,1985
cytogenetic analysis oral
monkey
42 mg/kg/30 week TOLED5 8,165,1981
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
rat
23 g/m3/16 week GTPZAB 26(10),38,1982
DNA damage inhalation
human
4.2 ng/L/6 year- intermittent TXCYAC 187,183,2003


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/24 hour (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)
ZHPMAT 165,294,1977
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3/24 hour (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic ZHPMAT 165,294,1977
oral
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 662 mg/kg (1-21 week pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral TXAPA9 25,466,1973
oral
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 814 mg/kg (5 week prior to copulation/1-21 week pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral AEHLAU 29,154,1974
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 2,118 mg/kg (15 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
AECTCV 17,365,1988
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,120 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
AEHLAU 23,102,1971
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6,300 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)
EXPEAM 31,1312,1975
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg (1-2 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility TXCYAC 6,129,1976
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,800 mg/kg (1-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material) BECTA6 18,271,1977
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,099.2 mg/kg (56 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Other effects on male
TOLED5 42,285,1988
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 24 g/kg (multigeneration) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical REPTED 19,35,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 ppb (multigenerations) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system REPTED 22,586,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 ppb (multigeneration) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system REPTED 22,586,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 790 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
AEHLAU 23,102,1971
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,140 mg/kg (14 day prior to copulation-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral PHMCAA 20,201,1978
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 520 mg/kg (7-22 day pregnant/10 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic FEPRA7 37,394,1978
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,100 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
FEPRA7 37,895,1978
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,545 gm/kg (8 week prior to copulation-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETOX* 27,11,2006


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 g/m3 Gastrointestinal: Gastritis

Liver: Other changes
VRDEA5 (5),107,1981
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 271 mg/m3 N/R VCVN1* -,425,1988
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kg N/R EQSSDX 1,1,1975
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Eye: Other eye effects TOXID9 66,206,2002
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 155 mg/kg N/R VCVN1* -,427,1988
oral
pigeon
lowest published lethal dose: 160 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) TPKVAL 14,22,1975
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/6 year Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Behavioral: Muscle weakness
JAMAAP 237,2627,1977
parenteral
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 88 mg/kg Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins NETOX* 27,108,2006


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3/6 hour/30 day- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Uncharacterized (multiple organ involvement) KHZDAN 15,150,1972
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 200 g/m3/6 hour/26 week- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Uncharacterized (multiple organ involvement) KHZDAN 15,150,1972
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 9.9 mg/m3/122 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field VCVN1* -,425,1988
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.11 mg/m3/26 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes VCVN1* -,425,1988
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.3 mg/m3/1 year- intermittent Endocrine: Change in LH

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
HUTODJ 7,125,1988
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.3 mg/m3/5 year- intermittent Endocrine: Androgenic HUTODJ 7,125,1988
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.109 mg/m3/5 year- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) AEHLAU 42,124,1987
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6,879 mg/kg/5 week- continuous Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)
PNUSB5 (505),53,1982
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,099.2 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in endocrine weight (unspecified) TOLED5 42,285,1988
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 10,248 mg/kg/20 week- intermittent Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOLED5 42,285,1988
oral
non-mammalian species
lowest published toxic dose: 582 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Endocrine: Androgenic

Endocrine: Estrogenic

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight
MAERE* 24,179,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,050 g/kg/30 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
GISAAA 40(5),101,1975
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 93.6 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOXID9 72,17,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 43.75 mg/kg/1 week- continuous Blood: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
TOXID9 66,283,2002
unreported route
horse, donkey
lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/60 day- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVN1* -,427,1988
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.12 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
VCVN1* -,426,1988
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.12 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Endocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
VCVN1* -,426,1988


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3 DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed animal carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 23,325,1980
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 23,325,1980
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 2B IMSUDL 7,230,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 540,19,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PGMJAO 51,783,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JDSCAE 58,1767,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
IRXPAT 12,1,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MAERE* 51,247,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CTPHBG 55,147,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CTOXAO 6,377,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
QURBAW 7,75,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
RREVAH 54,55,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JAVMA4 164,277,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AEMBAP 40,239,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CTOXAO 5,151,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FOREAE 7,313,1942
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
KOTTAM 11,1300,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
GEIGAI 20,291,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
STEVA8 2,341,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CLCHAU 19,361,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AJMEAZ 38,409,1965
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
85DHAX Pb,254,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PDTNBH 6,204,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AMTODM 3,209,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 76,115,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
49DXAV -,57,1983
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 134,17,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,155,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,161,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMCPT* 2,67,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,209,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AEHLAU 30,396,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NETOX* 26,483,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NETOX* 26,491,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NETOX* 26,521,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NETOX* 26,531,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NETOX* 26,641,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NRTXDN 27,429,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NRTXDN 27,520,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CLNUT* 25,369,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 613,76,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JJATDK 26,191,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,742,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,334,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOPADD 32(Suppl. 2),71,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 533,133,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTEHD6 7,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 23,260,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 23,428,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 23,297,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HTOPA* 1,701,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ITODC* -,327,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ITODC* -,355,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,247,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,515,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 681,93,2009


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3 DTLVS* 3,143,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) see Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29,1910.1025 CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.2 mg(Pb)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.2 mg(Pb)/m3 CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3 (dust, fume), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3 (dust, fume), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 0.05 mg(Pb)/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3, APR 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 0.15 mg(Pb)/m3, APR 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 0.1 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3 (resp), short term exposure limit 0.2 mg/m3 (resp), SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.6 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 0.1 mg/m3, 2B carcinogen, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 0.15 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Pb)/m3 (dust and fume), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 0.05 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (total dust);
time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (resp. dust), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.1 mg/m3;
KZG- week 0.8 mg/m3, DEC2006


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO LEAD, INORGANIC-air 10 hour time-weighted average 50 g/m3 NIOSH* DHHS#92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 42490;
Number of Industries 107;
Total Number of Facilities 8,256;
Number of Occupations 81;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 103,308
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: X3272;
Number of Industries 5;
Total Number of Facilities 149;
Number of Occupations 15;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 4,226;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 777
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: X5909;
Number of Industries 4;
Total Number of Facilities 53;
Number of Occupations 7;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 857;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 437
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: X8307;
Number of Industries 2;
Total Number of Facilities 13;
Number of Occupations 2;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 616
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 42490;
Number of Industries 235;
Total Number of Facilities 43,061;
Number of Occupations 146;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 767,619;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 236,378


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/99/166704)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Sperm morphology-human
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vivo cytogenetics-nonhuman bone marrow
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: In vivo cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in making storage batteries, and as an intermediate for tetraalkyl leads
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Elements by ICP, 7300
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Lead, by flame AAS, 7082; or by HGAAS, 7105
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Elements in blood or tissue, 8005
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Lead in blood and urine, 8003; in surface wipe samples, 9100
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Metals in urine, 8310
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID125G
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID206


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

49DXAV "Health Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Infant Formula and Junior Food, Proceedings of the Symposium, 1981," Schmidt, E.H.F., and A.G. Hildebrandt, eds., Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1983
85DHAX "Medical and Biologic Effects of Environmental Pollutants Series," Washington, DC, National Academy of Sciences, 1972-77
AECTCV Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 070944) V.1- 1973-
AEHLAU Archives of Environmental Health. (Heldref Pub., 4000 Albemarle St., NW, Washington, DC 20016) V.1- 1960-
AEMBAP Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.1- 1967-
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CTPHBG Current Topics in Pathology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.51- 1970-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EMCPT* EMC-Toxicologie Pathologie (Elsevier) V.1- 2004-
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GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
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HBAMAK "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.)
HTOPA*
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HUTOX*
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ITODC*
JAMAAP JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association. (AMA, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610) V.1- 1883-
JAVMA4 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. (American Veterinary Medical Assoc., 930 N. Meacham Rd., Schaumburg, IL 60196) V.48- 1915-
JDSCAE Journal of Dairy Science. (American Dairy Science Assoc., 309 W. Clark St., Champaign, IL 61820) V.1- 1917-
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
KHZDAN Khigiena i Zdraveopazvane. Hygiene and Sanitation. (Hemus, Blvd. Russki 6, Sofia, Bulgaria) V.9- 1966-
KOTTAM Kogai to Taisaku. Journal of Environmental Pollution Control. (Kogai Taisaku Gijutsu Dokokai, Shuwa-Akasaka Bldg., 9-1-244, Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107, Japan) V.1- 1965-
MAERE* Marine Environmental Research. (Kidlington, Oxford : Elsevier) V. 1- 1978-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NETOX* NeuroToxicology (Amsterdam : Elsevier Science) V.1- 1979-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NRTXDN Neurotoxicology. (Intox Press, Inc., POB 34075, Little Rock, AR 72203) V.1- 1979-
PDTNBH Paediatrician. (S. Karger AG, Postfach CH-4009 Basel, Switzerland) V.1- 1972-
PGMJAO Postgraduate Medical Journal. (Blackwell Scientific Pub. Ltd., POB 88, Oxford, UK) V.1- 1925-
PHMCAA Pharmacologist. (American Soc. for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20014) V.1- 1959-
PNUSB5 Prace Nauwoke Uniwersytetu Slaskiego Katowicach. (Uniwersytet Slaski w Katowicach, Prace Naukowe, Katowice, Poland) No.901- 1988-
QURBAW Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics. (Cambridge Univ. Press, The Edinburgh Bldg., Shaftesbury Rd., Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK) V.1- 1968-
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
RREVAH Residue Reviews. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1962-
STEVA8 Science of the Total Environment. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1972-
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ZHPMAT Zentralblatt fuer Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, Abteilung 1: Originale, Reihe B: Hygiene, Krankenhaushygiene, Betriebshygiene, Praeventive Medizin. (Stuttgart, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.155-169, 1971-1979. For publisher information, see ZAOMDC.

Used in making storage batteries, and as an intermediate for tetraalkyl leads

NIOSH PROFILE (DEMOLITION and WRECKING), SRC, 1/80

NIOSH PROFILE (HEAVY METAL GREASES AND SOAPS), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (PRINTING INDUSTRY), SRC, 10/77

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Organometallic
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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