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Hydrocyanic acid

RTECS #: MW6825000

CAS #: 74-90-8


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 27.03 MF: CHN


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  3. REVIEWS:
  4. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  5. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  6. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  7. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Acide cyanhydrique (French)
  2. Acido cianidrico (Italian)
  3. Aero Liquid HCN
  4. Blausaeure (German)
  5. Blauwzuur (Dutch)
  6. Carbon hydride nitride (chn)
  7. Cyaanwaterstof (Dutch)
  8. Cyanwasserstoff (German)
  9. Cyclon
  10. Cyclone B
  1. Cyjanowodor (Polish)
  2. Evercyn
  3. Formic anammonide
  4. Formonitrile
  5. Hydrogen cyanide
  6. Hydrogen cyanide (ACGIH:OSHA)
  7. Prussic acid
  8. Prussic acid, unstabilized
  9. RCRA waste number P063
  10. Zaclondiscoids


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
N/R N/R N/R N/R


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published lethal concentration: 550 mg/m3 N/R VCVN1* -,334,1988
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 200 mg/m3/10 minute Behavioral: General anesthetic

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
WHOTAC -,30,1970
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3 Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Cardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP
VCVN1* -,334,1988
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 100 mg/m3/1 hour Brain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVN1* -,334,1988
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 120 mg/m3/30 minute Brain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVN1* -,334,1988
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 200 mg/m3/10 minute Brain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVN1* -,334,1988
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 5 mg/m3 Behavioral: Headache TOVEFN (2),39,2001
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3 Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
TOVEFN (2),39,2001
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 100 mg/m3/1 hour N/R TOVEFN (2),39,2001
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 120 mg/m3/30 minute N/R TOVEFN (2),39,2001
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 200 mg/m3/10 minute N/R TOVEFN (2),39,2001
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal concentration: 200 ppm/5 minute N/R AEPPAE 138,65,1928
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal concentration: 36 ppm/2 hour N/R TABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 mg/m3/3 minute- continuous Eye: Mydriasis (pupilliary dilation)

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
HUTODJ 3,57,1984
inhalation
man
lowest published lethal concentration: 400 mg/m3/2 minute N/R 85GMAT -,75,1982
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 17 ppm/10 minute Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
TOXID9 72,159,2003
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/30 minute Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
TOXID9 72,159,2003
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 7.1 ppm/1 hour Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
TOXID9 72,159,2003
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 3.5 ppm/4 hour Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
TOXID9 72,159,2003
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 2.5 ppm/8 hour Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
TOXID9 72,159,2003
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 323 ppm/5 minute N/R TXAPA9 42,417,1977
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 177 ppm/29 minute N/R ENTOX* -,698,2005
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 48.65 mg/m3/2 hour N/R TPKVAL 9,7,1967
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 45.3 ppm/2 hour N/R TPKVAL 9,7,1967
inhalation
rat
lowest published lethal concentration: 138 ppm/15 minute N/R TOXID9 72,159,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published lethal concentration: 127 ppm/30 minute N/R TOXID9 72,159,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published lethal concentration: 88 ppm/1 hour N/R TOXID9 72,159,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm Ear: Change in acuity

Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function
TOSCF2 66,131,2002
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 150 ppm/30 minute N/R ENTOX* -,639,2005
inhalation
rabbit
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 208 mg/m3/35 minute Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Cardiac: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
TSUJDP 13,263,1994
intramuscular
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,700 g/kg N/R BJPCAL 23,455,1964
intramuscular
pigeon
lowest published lethal dose: 1,500 g/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
intramuscular
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 486 g/kg N/R JACTDZ 1(3),120,1982
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,990 g/kg N/R BJPCAL 23,455,1964
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,570 g/kg N/R BJPCAL 23,455,1964
intravenous
cat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 810 g/kg N/R NTIS** AD-A028-501
intravenous
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,340 g/kg N/R NTIS** AD-A028-501
intravenous
domestic animal
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 660 g/kg N/R NTIS** PB158-508
intravenous
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,430 g/kg N/R NTIS** AD-A028-501
intravenous
man
lowest published toxic dose: 55 g/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation NTIS** PB158-508
intravenous
monkey
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,300 g/kg N/R NTIS** AD-A028-501
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 990 g/kg N/R NTIS** AD-A028-501
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 810 g/kg N/R NTIS** AD-A028-501
intravenous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 660 g/kg N/R NTIS** AD-A028-501
ocular
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,040 g/kg Eye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
JTOTDO 2,119,1983
oral
domestic bird
lowest published lethal dose: 600 g/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
oral
wild bird
lowest published lethal dose: 7,500 g/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
oral
duck
lowest published lethal dose: 3,280 g/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
oral
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 4 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1340,1935
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 570 g/kg N/R PCOC** -,596,1966
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,700 g/kg N/R APFRAD 19,740,1961
oral
pigeon
lowest published lethal dose: 14 mg/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
oral
pig
lowest published lethal dose: 2 mg/kg N/R AEHLAU 22,496,1971
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 4 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1340,1935
subcutaneous
domestic bird
lowest published lethal dose: 100 g/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1340,1935
subcutaneous
wild bird
lowest published lethal dose: 100 g/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 1,100 g/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1340,1935
subcutaneous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 1,700 g/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1340,1935
subcutaneous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 60 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1340,1935
subcutaneous
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 100 g/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1340,1935
subcutaneous
human
lowest published lethal dose: 1 mg/kg N/R SCJUAD 3(4),33,1967
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 3 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1340,1935
subcutaneous
pigeon
lowest published lethal dose: 2,150 g/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,500 g/kg N/R BJPCAL 23,455,1964
skin
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 100 pph/47 minute N/R VCVN1* -,334,1988
unreported route
man
lowest published lethal dose: 1,471 g/kg N/R 85DCAI 2,73,1970


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value ceiling concentration 4.7 ppm (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EVHPAZ 11,163,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JOCMA7 1,281,1959
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CPEMM* 3,239,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXCYAC 214,221,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,639,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,698,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 23,428,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,661,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (11 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (11 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (11 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (11 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 10 ppm (10 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA ceiling concentration 10 ppm (11 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM short term exposure limit 4.7 ppm (5 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK ceiling concentration 5 mg(CN)/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 5 ppm (5 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND short term exposure limit 10 ppm (11 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 2 ppm (2 mg/m3), VLE 10 ppm (10 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 2.1 mg/m3 (1.9 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 2 mg(CN)/m3 (inhalable), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 11 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 44 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3, short term exposure limit 20 mg(CN)/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 5 ppm (5.5 mg/m3), skin, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA ceiling concentration 10 ppm (11 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO peak 9.4 ppm (10 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC- continuous 11 mg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND ceiling concentration 10 ppm (11 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 5 ppm (5 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 10 ppm (11 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 0.3 mg/m3, CEILING 10 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 0.3 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 1.9 ppm (2.1 mg/m3);
KZG- week 3.8 ppm (4.2 mg/m3),DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 10 ppm (11 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 10 ppm (11 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM short term exposure limit 10 ppm (11 mg/m3) (skin), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 5 mg(CN)/m3 (skin), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

ceiling concentration 4.7 ppm (skin)
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
ceiling concentration 4.7 ppm (skin)


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO HYDROGEN CYANIDE-air short term exposure limit 4.7 ppm (Sk) NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 38530;
Number of Industries 14;
Total Number of Facilities 461;
Number of Occupations 17;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 2,137
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 38530;
Number of Industries 13;
Total Number of Facilities 91;
Number of Occupations 57;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 3,994;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 254


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in chemical synthesis of sequestrants, polymers, weed killers, and pharmaceuticals
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0892-9215
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Cyanides (aerosol and gas), 7904
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrogen cyanide, 6010


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970
85GMAT "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982
AEHLAU Archives of Environmental Health. (Heldref Pub., 4000 Albemarle St., NW, Washington, DC 20016) V.1- 1960-
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
APFRAD Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises. (SPPIF, B.P.22, F-41353 Vineuil, France) V.1- 1943-
BJPCAL British Journal of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy. (London, UK) V.1-33, 1946-68. For publisher information, see BJPCBM.
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CPEMM* Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine (Philadelphia, PA : W.B. Saunders Co.)
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
FDWU** "Ueber die Wirkung Verschiedener Gifte Auf Vogel, Dissertation," Forchheimer, L., Pharmakologischen Institut der Universitat Wurzburg, Fed. Rep. Ger., 1931
FNSCA6 Forensic Science. (Lausanne, Switzerland) V.1-11, 1972-78. For pub lisher information, see FSINDR.
HBAMAK "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.)
HUTODJ Human Toxicology. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants., RG 21 2XS, UK) V.1- 1981-
HUTOX*
JACTDZ Journal of the American College of Toxicology. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 1651 Third Ave., New York, NY 10128) V.1-12, 1982-1993. Discontinued.
JOCMA7 Journal of Occupational Medicine. (Chicago, IL) V.1-9, 1957-67. For publisher information, see:JJOMDZ
JTOTDO Journal of Toxicology, Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.1- 1982-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
PCOC** Pesticide Chemicals Official Compendium, Association of the American Pesticide Control Officials, Inc., 1966. (Topeka, KS)
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
SCJUAD Science Journal. (London, UK) V.1-7, 1965-71. For publisher information, see NWSCAL.
TABIA2 Tabulae Biologicae. (The Hague, Netherlands) V.1-22, 1925-63. Discontinued.
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
TOVEFN Toksikologicheskii Vestnik. (18-20 Vadkovskii per. Moscow, 101479, Russia) History Unknown
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TPKVAL Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. (Izdatel'stvo Meditsina, Moscow, USSR) No.1- 1961-
TSUJDP Toxic Substances Journal. (Springborn Management Consultants, 30 Springborn Center, Enfield, CT 06082) V.1- 1979-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VCVN1* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov I-IV groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing I-IV group elements), Filov V.A., Chimia, 1988.
WHOTAC World Health Organization, Technical Report Series. (WHO, 1211 Geneva, 27, Switzerland) No.1- 1950-

Used in chemical synthesis of sequestrants, polymers, weed killers, and pharmaceuticals

NIOSH PROFILE (GRAIN HANDLERS), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (JEWELRY MANUFACTURING), SRC,

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Human Data

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