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Formamide

RTECS #: LQ0525000

CAS #: 75-12-7


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 45.05 MF: CH3NO


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Amid kyseliny mravenci (Czech)
  2. Carbamaldehyde
  3. Formamide (ACGIH)
  1. Formimidic acid
  2. Methanamide
  3. Methanoic acid, amide


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
100 mg severe AJOPAA 29,1363,1946


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis non-mammalian species other cell types 500 mmol/L CAANAT 56,712,1972
other mutation test systems non-mammalian species other cell types 500 mmol/L CAANAT 56,712,1972


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg (multigeneration)) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility
TOXID9 13,76,1993
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6.8 gm/kg (7 day male/7 day prior to copulation/21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility
NTIS** #PB93-109213
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6.8 gm/kg (7 day prior to copulation/21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition
NTIS** #PB93-109213
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 195 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NTIS** #PB93-109213
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 14.6 gm/kg (91 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct CRTXB2 31,139,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kg (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
85DJA5 -,95,1971
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,980 mg/kg (7-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
85DJA5 -,95,1971
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.4 gm/kg (6-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) NTIS** #PB99-139701
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14.6 gm/kg (91 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct CRTXB2 31,139,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,000 mg/kg (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) TPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 910 mg/kg (6-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ARZNAD 30,1557,1980
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 2.88 gm/kg (6-29 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth
NTIS** #PB2001-104060
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 3.36 gm/kg (6-29 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth) NTIS** #PB2001-104060
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 805 mg/kg (6-29 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion
TOSCF2 69,165,2002
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 3,220 mg/kg (6-29 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TOSCF2 69,165,2002
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,200 mg/kg (10-11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death TXAPA9 41,35,1977


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 11 gm/m3 N/R TPKVAL 9,163,1967
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.7 gm/m3 N/R TPKVAL 11,86,1969
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): >3,900 ppm/6 hour N/R NTIS** OTS0528421
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.7 gm/m3/4 hour Brain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,250 mg/kg Blood: Changes in spleen

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Glycolytic
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,450 mg/kg N/R AEPPAE 230,559,1957
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,700 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 26,596,1973
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 1,500 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5.1 gm/kg N/R ENTOX* -,377,2005
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5.6 gm/kg N/R ENTOX* -,377,2005
ocular
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 10 pph Eye: Conjunctiva irritation TPKVAL 9,163,1967
ocular
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 50 pph Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Eye: Corneal damage
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,150 mg/kg N/R GISAAA 39(4),86,1974
oral
mouse
lethal dose : 4,800 mg/kg N/R TPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral
mouse
lethal dose (16 percent kill): 1,900 mg/kg Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,150 mg/kg Spinal Cord: Changes in circulation

Vascular: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,450 mg/kg N/R TPKVAL 11,86,1969
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,000 mg/kg N/R TPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral
rat
lethal dose : 7,450 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral
rat
lethal dose (16 percent kill): 5,100 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Incontinence

Blood: Hemorrhage
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,577 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Gastritis

Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 5,000 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,570 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning TPKVAL 11,86,1969
subcutaneous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >4 gm/kg N/R APEPA2 257,296,1967
skin
rat
lethal dose : >13,500 mg/kg N/R PJPPAA 32,223,1980
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 17 gm/kg N/R NTIS** OTS0528421
unreported route
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,150 mg/kg N/R TPKVAL 9,3,1967
unreported route
pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,250 mg/kg N/R TPKVAL 9,3,1967
unreported route
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3 gm/kg N/R EXPEAM 29,225,1973


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 ppm/6 hour/2 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Blood: Changes in platelet count

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FAATDF 13,702,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.6 gm/m3/30 day- intermittent Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Blood: Luekopenia
TPKVAL 11,86,1969
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.6 gm/m3/122 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Blood: Changes in spleen
TPKVAL 11,86,1969
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 910 mg/kg/26 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria
GISAAA 52(3),72,1987
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,500 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTIS** #PB99-139701
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain NTIS** #PB99-139701
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 2,880 mg/kg/24 day- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Decreased motility or constipation NTIS** #PB2001-104060
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 910 mg/kg/13 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain NTIS** #PB99-139701
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 840 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal) NTIS** #PB99-139701
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 805 mg/kg/23 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field TOSCF2 69,165,2002
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 pph/5 day- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Muscle weakness
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 pph/10 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field TPKVAL 9,163,1967
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 27 gm/kg/90 day- intermittent Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTIS** OTS0535890


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 10 ppm (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 31,139,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,377,2005


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 10 ppm (18 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 10 ppm (18 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 10 ppm (18 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 20 ppm (37 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 30 ppm (55 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 20 ppm (30 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 20 ppm (30 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 30 ppm (45 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 16 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 10 ppm (18 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 10 ppm (18 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 3 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 10 ppm (20 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 15 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 10 ppm (18 mg/m3), Skin, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 20 ppm (37 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 30 ppm, 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

time-weighted average 10 ppm (skin)
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
time-weighted average 10 ppm (skin)


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO FORMAMIDE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (Sk) NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 84454;
Number of Industries 6;
Total Number of Facilities 227;
Number of Occupations 14;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 3,195
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 84454;
Number of Industries 3;
Total Number of Facilities 42;
Number of Occupations 5;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 2,724;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 556


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULE FEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; selected, October 2000
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; test completed (peer review), October 2000


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85DJA5 "Malformations Congenitales des Mammiferes," Tuchmann-Duplessis, H., Paris, Masson et Cie, 1971
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AJOPAA American Journal of Ophthalmology. (Ophthalmic Pub. Co., 435 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 1415, Chicago, IL 60611) Series 3: V.1- 1918-
APEPA2 Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archiv fuer Pharmakologie und Experimentelle Pathologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.254-263, 1966-69. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
ARZNAD Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. (Editio Cantor Verlag, Postfach 1255, W-7960 Aulendorf, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1- 1951-
CAANAT Comptes Rendus de l'Association des Anatomistes. (Nancy, France) V.1-56, 1899-1972. For publisher information, see ANOBAU.
CRTXB2 CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. (CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431) V.1- 1971-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
EXPEAM Experientia. (Birkhaeuser Verlag, POB 133, CH-4010 Basel, Switzerland) V.1- 1945-
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
HBAMAK "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.)
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
PJPPAA Polish Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacy. (ARS Polona, POB 1001, 00-068 Warsaw 1, Poland) V.25-44, 1973-92. For publisher information, see PJPAE3
TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TPKVAL Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. (Izdatel'stvo Meditsina, Moscow, USSR) No.1- 1961-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Primary Irritant

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