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Formaldehyde

RTECS #: LP8925000

CAS #: 50-00-0


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 30.03 MF: CH2O


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Aldehyde formique (French)
  2. Aldehyd mravenci (Czech)
  3. Aldeide formica (Italian)
  4. BFV
  5. FYDE
  6. Fannoform
  7. Formaldehyd (Czech, Polish)
  8. Formaldehyde (ACGIH:OSHA)
  9. Formaldehyde, gas
  10. Formalin 40
  11. Formalina (Italian)
  12. Formalin - loesungen (German)
  13. Formalith
  14. Formalin
  15. Formaline (German)
  1. Formic aldehyde
  2. Formol
  3. Lysoform
  4. Methaldehyde
  5. Methanal
  6. Methyl aldehyde
  7. Methylene oxide
  8. Morbicid
  9. NCI - C02799
  10. Oplossingen (Dutch)
  11. Oxomethane
  12. Oxymethylene
  13. Paraform
  14. RCRA waste number U122
  15. Superlysoform


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
human
4 ppm/5 minute N/R IAPWAR 4,79,1961
eye
human
1 ppm/6 minute rinse mild AIHAAP 44,463,1983
eye
rabbit
750 µg/24 hour severe 85JCAE -,264,1986
eye
rabbit
750 µg severe AJOPAA 29,1363,1946
eye
rabbit
10 mg severe TXAPA9 55,501,1980
eye
rabbit
37% severe JTPAE7 29,187,2001
skin
human
150 µg/3 day- intermittent mild 85DKA8 -,127,1977
skin
human
2%/48 hour JAADDB 8,157,1983
skin
rabbit
2 mg/24 hour severe 85JCAE -,264,1986
skin
rabbit
540 mg open irritation test mild UCDS** 4/21/1967
skin
rabbit
50 mg/24 hour moderate TXAPA9 21,369,1972


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis grasshopper other cell types 750 µmol/L ENMUDM 8,401,1986
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 18 mg/L GMCRDC 27,95,1981
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 200 µg/L ENMUDM 7,1,1985
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 10 mg/L TSITAQ 24,1056,1982
cytogenetic analysis human fibroblast 2 mmol/L MUREAV 119,309,1983
cytogenetic analysis human other cell types 0.3 µmol/L/30 hour MUREAV 649,45,2008
cytogenetic analysis oral
mouse
100 mg/kg ENMUDM 4,317,1982
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
mouse
15 mg/kg ENMUDM 5,381,1983
cytogenetic analysis mouse other cell types 125 µmol/L/2 hour MUTAEX 17,183,2002
cytogenetic analysis non-mammalian species other cell types 40 mmol/L CAANAT 56,712,1972
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
rat
500 µg/m3/17 week- continuous GISAAA 53(5),75,1988
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
rat
15 ppm/5 day- intermittent ENMUDM 7(Suppl 3),53,1985
dominant lethal test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
1,300 ppm MGGEAE 106,286,1970
dominant lethal test intraperitoneal
rat
625 µg/kg/5 day- continuous MUREAV 389,141,1997
DNA adduct Escherichia coli 5 ppm MUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA adduct human other cell types 500 mg/L MUREAV 563,13,2004
DNA adduct mammal (species unspecified) lymphocyte 500 ppm MOLBBJ 7,201,1973
DNA damage chicken leukocyte 500 ppm CELLB5 5,45,1975
DNA damage hamster ovary 1 mmol/L MUREAV 367,143,1996
DNA damage hamster fibroblast 50 µmol/L MUREAV 649,146,2008
DNA damage human lymphocyte 10 µmol/L CRNGDP 17,121,1996
DNA damage human fibroblast 100 µmol/L ENMUDM 7,267,1985
DNA damage human lung 100 µmol/L SCIEAS 220,216,1983
DNA damage human leukocyte 12,500 nmol/L MUREAV 468,93,2000
DNA damage human lymphocyte 0.1 mmol/L/3 hour (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 540,43,2003
DNA damage human lymphocyte 0.3 mmol/L/3 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 540,43,2003
DNA damage human mammary gland 0.14 mg/L/24 hour (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 588,47,2005
DNA damage human other cell types 0.1 µmol/L/1 hour NSAPCC 369(Suppl 1),R113,2004
DNA damage human other cell types 25 µmol/L MUTAEX 22,69,2007
DNA damage mammal (species unspecified) lymphocyte 660 mmol/L BIORAK 39,436,1974
DNA damage mouse liver 250 µmol/L CRNGDP 15,991,1994
DNA damage mouse leukocyte 125 µmol/L JJIND8 67,217,1981
DNA damage mouse other cell types 62.5 µmol/L/2 hour MUTAEX 17,183,2002
DNA damage rat liver 1 mmol/L CRNGDP 15,991,1994
DNA damage inhalation
rat
35 µg/m3/8 week- intermittent PRKHDK 4,101,1979
DNA damage oral
rat
10 µmol/kg ENMUDM 4,317,1982
DNA damage rat other cell types 500 µmol/L ENMUDM 8(Suppl 6),11,1986
DNA damage rat other cell types 200 µmol/L TXCYAC 51,309,1988
DNA damage rat other cell types 5 mmol/L/10 minute MUREAV 634,51,2007
DNA inhibition Escherichia coli 5 mmol/L MUREAV 156,153,1985
DNA inhibition human other cell types 210 µmol/L CNREA8 45,2522,1985
DNA inhibition human HeLa cell 400 µmol/L CRNGDP 13,2389,1992
DNA inhibition rat other cell types 100 µmol/L ENMUDM 8(Suppl 6),11,1986
DNA repair Escherichia coli 1,950 µg/L CRNGDP 2,189,1981
unscheduled DNA synthesis human HeLa cell 10 nmol/L CNREA8 38,2621,1978
unscheduled DNA synthesis rat other cell types 50 µmol/L ENMUDM 8(Suppl 6),11,1986
unscheduled DNA synthesis oral
rat
55 mg/kg JJCREP 79,917,1988
unscheduled DNA synthesis rat liver 400 mmol/L MUREAV 221,263,1989
host-mediated assay mouse
Escherichia coli
10 mg/kg MUREAV 272,161,1992
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 100 ppm/3 hour (-enzymatic activation step) AMNTA4 85,119,1951
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 5 µg/plate/48 hour MUTAEX 15,317,2000
mutation in microorganisms mouse lymphocyte 25 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step) FCTOD7 23,115,1985
mutation in microorganisms Neurospora crassa 10 mmol/plate (-enzymatic activation step) CSHSAZ 16,245,1952
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 1 pph/5 minute- continuous (-enzymatic activation step) MMAPAP 49,205,1973
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 10 ppm (-enzymatic activation step) POASAD 34,114,1953
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 200 ppm (-enzymatic activation step) APMBAY 6,45,1958
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 1,000 ppm (-enzymatic activation step) JOBAAY 63,1,1952
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 250 ppm (-enzymatic activation step) SOGEBZ 8,412,1972
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 1 pph/15 minute (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 7,19,1969
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 200 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 62,239,1979
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 100 µmol/L (+/-enzymatic activation step) MUTAEX 1,427,1986
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 0.25 µmol/L/20 minute (+/-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 514,133,2002
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 8.48 µg/plate/72 hour (-enzymatic activation step) MUTAEX 15,495,2000
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 5 µg/plate/48 hour MUTAEX 15,317,2000
mutation in microorganisms Serratia marcescens 5 gm/L (-enzymatic activation step) ATXKA8 28,93,1971
micronucleus test hamster fibroblast 3 mmol/L/15 minute MUREAV 514,133,2002
micronucleus test hamster fibroblast 100 µmol/L MUREAV 649,146,2008
micronucleus test inhalation
human
0.985 mg/m3/8 hour/8.5 year MUREAV 588,22,2005
micronucleus test inhalation
human
2 ppm/15 minute MUREAV 605,30,2006
micronucleus test inhalation
human
0.1 ppm/8 hour MUREAV 615,18,2007
micronucleus test human other cell types 300 µmol/L/44 hour MUTAEX 22,69,2007
micronucleus test oral
rat
200 mg/kg/30 hour MUTAEX 4,327,1989
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 24 mmol/L MUREAV 33,179,1975
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster ovary 1 mmol/L MUREAV 367,143,1996
mutation in mammalian somatic cells human lymphocyte 130 µmol/L 50RXAH 2,173,1983
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 74 mg/L FCTOD7 23,115,1985
morphological transform hamster embryo 125 µg/L MUREAV 356,85,1996
morphological transform hamster kidney 4 mg/L CRNGDP 4,457,1983
morphological transform mouse embryo 1 mg/L ENMUDM 4,357,1982
morphological transform rat kidney 100 µmol/L/3 hour EJCODS 22,671,1986
other mutation test systems Escherichia coli 300 µmol/L MUREAV 203,81,1988
other mutation test systems human other cell types 210 µmol/L CNREA8 45,2522,1985
other mutation test systems human lymphocyte 10 mg/L TSITAQ 24,1056,1982
other mutation test systems non-mammalian species other cell types 40 mmol/L CAANAT 56,712,1972
other mutation test systems non-mammalian species other cell types 25 mmol/L ECREAL 95,233,1975
other mutation test systems rat other cell types 100 µmol/L ENMUDM 8(Suppl 6),11,1986
other mutation test systems Salmonella typhimurium 19 mg/L MUREAV 192,239,1987
phage inhibition capacity Escherichia coli 25 µg/well MUREAV 260,349,1991
phage inhibition capacity hamster embryo 3 µL/L ENMUDM 6,474,1984
sister chromatid exchange hamster lung 67 µmol/L ARTODN 58,10,1985
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 110 µg/L ENMUDM 7,1,1985
sister chromatid exchange hamster fibroblast 100 µmol/L MUREAV 649,146,2008
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 125 µmol/L MUTAEX 1,427,1986
sister chromatid exchange unreported route
human
0.4 ppm/15 year- intermittent MUREAV 514,115,2002
sister chromatid exchange inhalation
human
0.985 mg/m3/8 hour/8.5 year MUREAV 588,22,2005
sister chromatid exchange human other cell types 200 µmol/L/72 hour MUTAEX 22,69,2007
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Aspergillus nidulans 20 mg/L EVHPAZ 31,81,1979
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction unreported route
Drosophila melanogaster
10 pph/3 hour- continuous AMNTA4 90,377,1956
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction inhalation
Drosophila melanogaster
7 pph/24 hour THAGA6 39,330,1969
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction oral
Drosophila melanogaster
250 ppm THAGA6 39,330,1969
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction parenteral
Drosophila melanogaster
2,000 ppm ENMUDM 7,677,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction multiple
non-mammalian species
700 ppm MUREAV 201,137,1988
specific locus test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
12,500 µmol/L MUREAV 182,243,1987
specific locus test mouse other cell types 125 µmol/L/2 hour MUTAEX 17,183,2002
specific locus test unreported route
non-mammalian species
700 ppm MUREAV 80,273,1981
sperm morphology intratesticular
domestic animal
23 mg/kg IJEBA6 11,143,1973
sperm morphology oral
rat
200 mg/kg ARTODN 53,71,1983
sperm morphology intraperitoneal
rat
625 µg/kg/5 day- continuous MUREAV 389,141,1997


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/m3/24 hour (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material) HYSAAV 34(5),266,1969
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 12 µg/m3/24 hour (15 day prior to copulation/1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
HYSAAV 33(1-3),327,1968
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 12 µg/m3/24h (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic HYSAAV 33(7-9),112,1968
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 35 µg/m3/8 hour (60 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Other effects on male
PRKHDK 4,101,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 12 µg/m3/24 hour (20 day prior to copulation/1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic BEXBAN 66,868,1968
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 µg/m3/4 hour (1-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
GISAAA 56(9),35,1991
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm (6-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) VCVGK* -,341,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 gm/m3 (1-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TPKVAL 12,78,1971
intramuscular
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 259 mg/kg (11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
ANREAK 142,479,1962
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg (7-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 28,37A,1983
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg (7-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death TJADAB 30(1),34A,1984
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 160 mg/kg (7-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities TJADAB 30(1),34A,1984
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg (5 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) MUREAV 130,417,1984
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg (10 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
JRBED2 7,42,1987
intratesticular
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct AEFTAA 6,349,1975
intratesticular
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 6,667 µg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
IJEBA6 11,143,1973
intratesticular
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) FESTAS 41,465,1984
intratesticular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females) FESTAS 24,884,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 168 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system GISAAA 55(3),89,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) TJADAB 26(3),14A,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 168 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic GISAAA 55(4),36,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 168 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system GISAAA 54(3),89,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 17.6 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) VCVGK* -,341,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 176 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
VCVGK* -,341,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10.5 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system
GISAAA 6,31,1994
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 46,243 mg/kg (20 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct ENDOAO 28,129,1941


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 14,300 ppb/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
CNREA8 43,4382,1983
inhalation
mouse
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 15 ppm/6 hour/104 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
EVSRBT 25,353,1982
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 14,300 ppb/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
CNREA8 43,4382,1983
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 15 ppm/6 hour/78 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
CNREA8 40,3398,1980
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 6 ppm/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
EVSRBT 25,353,1982
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 15 ppm/6 hour/86 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
TXAPA9 81,401,1985
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 14 ppm/6 hour/84 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
JJIND8 68,597,1982
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 18,750 µg/m3/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
GISAAA 48(4),60,1983
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 15 ppm/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
CIIT** DOCKET #10992,1982
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 5,600 ppb/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
CNREA8 43,4382,1983
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 14,300 ppb/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
50EXAK -,111,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 109 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Blood: Leukemia
TIHEEC 5,699,1989
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,170 mg/kg/65 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
GANNA2 45,451,1954
subcutaneous
rat
toxic dose : 350 mg/kg/78 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
FAONAU 50A,71,1972


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published lethal concentration: 400 mg/m3/2 hour N/R 85GMAT -,69,1982
inhalation
cat
lowest published toxic concentration: 140 mg/m3/1 minute Behavioral: Excitement

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
VCVGK* -,336,1984
inhalation
cat
lowest published toxic concentration: 140 mg/m3/3 minute Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting VCVGK* -,336,1984
inhalation
cat
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3 Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
VCVGK* -,336,1984
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 17 mg/m3/30 minute Eye: Lacrimation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JAMAAP 165,1908,1957
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 2 ppm/40 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
VCVGK* -,337,1984
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3 Behavioral: Headache VCVGK* -,341,1984
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 2.5 ppm Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough VCVGK* -,341,1984
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.2 ppm Eye: Conjunctiva irritation VCVGK* -,341,1984
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/m3 Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough
VCVGK* -,345,1984
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 ppm/6 minute Eye: Conjunctiva irritation VCVGK* -,345,1984
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.75 ppm Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TOXID9 44,87,2005
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 µg/m3 Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Behavioral: Aggression
GTPZAB 12(7),20,1968
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 2.55 ppm/2 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
VCVGK* -,336,1984
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 454 mg/m3/4 hour N/R CUTOEX 1,47,1993
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration : 155 mg/m3/2 hour Behavioral: Tetany

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema
VCVGK* -,335,1984
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 505 mg/m3/2 hour Behavioral: Tetany

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema
VCVGK* -,335,1984
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 2 ppm/6 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression TOLED5 9,137,1981
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 203 mg/m3 Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Excitement
GTPZAB 18(2),55,1974
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration : 308 mg/m3/2 hour Behavioral: Tetany

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema
VCVGK* -,335,1984
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 578 mg/m3/2 hour Behavioral: Tetany

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema
VCVGK* -,335,1984
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 250 ppm/2 hour Behavioral: Tetany

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema
VCVGK* -,335,1984
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 15 ppm Olfaction: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum

Gastrointestinal: Decreased motility or constipation
VCVGK* -,336,1984
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2 ppm/10 minute Olfaction: Other olfaction effects VCVGK* -,336,1984
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 ppm/6 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
VCVGK* -,336,1984
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 15 ppm/6 hour Olfaction: Other olfaction effects VCVGK* -,338,1984
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 250 ppm/4 hour N/R ENTOX* -,375,2005
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 815 ppm/0.5 hour N/R ENTOX* -,375,2005
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 gm/m3/4 hour N/R TPKVAL 11,143,1969
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration : 0.1 gm/m3/4 hour N/R TPKVAL 11,143,1969
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 gm/m3/4 hour Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
TPKVAL 11,143,1969
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 16 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 23,288,1972
intravenous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kg Blood: Other changes APTOA6 8,275,1952
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 70 mg/kg N/R IPSTB3 3,93,1976
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 87 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,336,1984
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 48 mg/kg N/R ARZNAD 5,213,1955
oral
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 260 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,336,1984
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 70 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,338,1984
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 643 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JJTOEX 4,261,1991
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 646 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Gastritis

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JJTOEX 4,261,1991
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 2.14 mL/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Pleural effusion

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach
CTOXAO 45,72,2007
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 42 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Excitement
NTIS** AD-A125-539
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 385 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,335,1984
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,336,1984
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kg N/R FCTOD7 26,447,1988
oral
rat
lethal dose (16 percent kill): 284 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,335,1984
oral
rat
lethal dose (84 percent kill): 729 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,335,1984
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,336,1984
oral
woman
lowest published lethal dose: 108 mg/kg N/R 29ZWAE -,328,1968
oral
woman
lowest published lethal dose: 1 mL/kg Behavioral: Coma

Cardiac: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Alteration in gastric secretion
ICMED9 23,708,1997
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 3.6 mL/kg Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosis

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
JTCTDW 41,665,2003
parenteral
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 800 µg/kg N/R IPSTB3 3,93,1976
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation FATOAO 50,94,1987
parenteral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kg Eye: Retinal changes pigmentary deposition, retinitis, other)

Eye: Hemorrhage

Eye: Other eye effects
PHTOEH 89,74,2001
parenteral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kg Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction) PHTOEH 89,74,2001
subcutaneous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 350 mg/kg N/R IPSTB3 3,93,1976
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchiolar constriction, including asthma
APTOA6 6,299,1950
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests JPETAB 292,331,2000
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,335,1984
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes BPBLEO 31,240,2008
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 420 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchiolar constriction, including asthma
APTOA6 6,299,1950
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3.76 mg/kg Spinal Cord: Inflammatory changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
EJPHAZ 441,67,2002
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.25 mg/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase FATOAO 45,81,1982
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation JKOMS* 17,81,2002
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.83 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests JPETAB 292,743,2000
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving segmental distribution BJMRDK 34,397,2001
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving peripheral nerve

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXIA6 43,273,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes JPETAB 309,616,2004
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 0.42 gm/kg N/R ENTOX* -,375,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving peripheral nerve JCINAO 111,507,2003
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 240 mg/kg Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation JAMAAP 62,984,1914
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 270 µL/kg N/R UCDS** 4/21/1967
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 270 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,336,1984
unreported route
man
lowest published lethal dose: 477 mg/kg N/R 85DCAI 2,73,1970


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 1.2 mg/m3/6 hour/8 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes VCVGK* -,338,1994
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 2 mg/m3/50 hour- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Hypersensitivity delayed (multiple organ involvement) VCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.11 mg/m3/30 day- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response VCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 14 pph/168 day- intermittent Eye: Other eye effects VCVGK* -,341,1994
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 42 mg/m3/6 hour/2 week- intermittent Olfaction: Ulcerated nasal septum VCVGK* -,338,1994
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 ppm/6 hour/4 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
VCVGK* -,338,1994
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 3 pph/30 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,343,1994
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 7.2 mg/m3/6 hour/30 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi
VCVGK* -,338,1994
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 15 ppm/6 hour/5 day- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response VCVGK* -,338,1994
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina
VCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/1 hour/35 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi VCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 14.3 ppm/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Olfaction: Tumors VCVGK* -,343,1994
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppb/12 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 197,1,2004
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppb/12 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 197,1,2004
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 ppb/12 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response
TXCYAC 197,1,2004
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 15 ppm/6 hour/24 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
ENVRAL 49,50,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 ppm/30 minute/13 week- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects TOLED5 47,287,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 99 ppm/6 hour/30 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 3,73,1983
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,200 ppb/6 hour/3 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FAATDF 29,208,1996
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 5 ppm/4 week- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects VCVGK* -,338,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 9.6 mg/m3/22 hour/60 day- intermittent Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Liver: Changes in liver weight
VCVGK* -,338,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3/40 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
VCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.7 mg/m3/60 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes VCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2 mg/m3/50 hour- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Hypersensitivity delayed (multiple organ involvement) VCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Behavioral: Ataxia VCVGK* -,339,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3/2 week- continuous Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3/90 day- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Liver: Multiple effects

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in blood vessels or in circulation of kidney
VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.35 mg/m3/98 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.12 mg/m3/98 day- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 mg/m3/182 day- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Hypersensitivity delayed (multiple organ involvement) VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects VCVGK* -,340,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 5.6 ppm/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Olfaction: Tumors VCVGK* -,343,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.36 mg/m3/6 hour/122 week- intermittent Olfaction: Tumors VCVGK* -,343,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 pph/4 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Blood: Changes in spleen

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 214,35,2006
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 gm/m3/19 day- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Blood: Other changes
TPKVAL 12,78,1971
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 gm/m3/19 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count TPKVAL 12,78,1971
inhalation
woman
lowest published toxic concentration: 5 mg/m3/5 year- intermittent Behavioral: Headache

Behavioral: Irritability
VCVGK* -,342,1994
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,730 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
IYKEDH 24,1175,1993
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 9,100 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain VCVGK* -,339,1994
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 29.68 mL/kg/8 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
VHTODE 43,330,2001
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 198.45 mL/kg/7 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain VHTODE 43,330,2001
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 26.88 mL/kg/2 week- continuous Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)
HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 13.4925 mL/kg/4 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal) HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 20.72 mL/kg/3 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal) HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 23.52 mL/kg/1 week- continuous Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)
HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 48.44 mL/kg/2 week- continuous Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 97.86 mL/kg/4 week- continuous Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis
HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 29.0675 mL/kg/8 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Reproductive: Other effects on female
HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 112.14 mL/kg/8 week- continuous Cardiac: Changes in heart weight

Reproductive: Other effects on female

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 208.18 mL/kg/8 week- continuous Cardiac: Changes in heart weight

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
HETOEA 24,415,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,500 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
FCTOD7 26,447,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Gastrointestinal: Gastritis

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
FCTOD7 27,77,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 13,650 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain VCVGK* -,339,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 962.5 mg/kg/11 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen
VCVGK* -,339,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,500 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Gastritis VCVGK* -,339,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/20 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases VCVGK* -,339,1994
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation FTRPAE 75,557,2004
skin
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 pph/48 hour- continuous Skin: After topical application: Dermatitis, allergic AJCDE* 13,177,2002
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Skin: After topical application: Cutaneous sensitization (experimental) CODEDG 45,89,2001
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 56.1 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Increased immune response TXCYAC 117,229,1997
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 112.5 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation TXCYAC 117,229,1997
skin
woman
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 pph/48 hour- continuous Skin: After topical application: Dermatitis, allergic AJCDE* 13,19,2002
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 380 mg/kg/20 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
VCVGK* -,339,1994
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,540 mg/kg/20 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGK* -,339,1994


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value ceiling concentration 0.3 ppm (sen) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Suspected human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 29,345,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 62,217,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Limited Evidence IMSUDL 7,211,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Limited Evidence IMEMDT 62,217,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 2A IMSUDL 7,211,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 2A IMEMDT 62,217,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 17,349,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 544,179,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
RTOPDW 34,17,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,43,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,239,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,261,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,347,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 589,111,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 612,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AINCM* 7,63,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CHHSA* 10,29,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DIMON* 46,551,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,375,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 613,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 636,178,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTEHD6 6,85,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,93,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,259,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,649,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXAPA9 233,355,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXCYAC 252,40,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 681,93,2009


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: Supported RBREV* -,122,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD air-ceiling concentration 2 ppm (3 mg/m3) DTLWS* 3,19,1973
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) see 1910.1048 CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) see Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29,1926.1148 CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) ceiling concentration 5 ppm (6 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 2 ppm (3 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 1 ppm (1.2 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 2 ppm (2.5 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM short term exposure limit 0.3 ppm (0.38 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK ceiling concentration 0.3 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 0.5 ppm, VLE 1 ppm, continuous3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 0.37 mg/m3 (0.3 mL/m3) (skin, sen), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 0.6 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.6 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 0.1 ppm (0.12 mg/m3), 2A carcinogen, sen, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit- continuous 0.2 ppm (0.24 mg/m3), APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 1 ppm (1.5 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 2 ppm (3 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO peak 2 ppm (3 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 1.5 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND ceiling concentration 1 ppm (1.2 mg/m3), sen, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 0.5 ppm (0.6 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 5 ppm (6 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 0.5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 1 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 0.5 ppm (0.6 mg/m3), ceiling concentration 1 ppm (1.2 mg/m3), Carcinogen, Sen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.3 ppm (0.37 mg/m3),KZG- week 0.6 ppm (0.74 mg/m3), DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 3 ppm, short term exposure limit 5 ppm, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 5 ppm (6 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 2 ppm (2.5 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 2 ppm, 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Suspected human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Suspected human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO FORMALDEHYDE-air Carcinogen;
8 hour time-weighted average 0.016 ppm;
ceiling concentration 0.1 ppm/15 minute
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: M1529;
Number of Industries 72;
Total Number of Facilities 10,311;
Number of Occupations 67;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 66,921
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 33640;
Number of Industries 213;
Total Number of Facilities 33,243;
Number of Occupations 155;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 394,660
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: M1529;
Number of Industries 87;
Total Number of Facilities 11,309;
Number of Occupations 69;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 207,013;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 104,994
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 33640;
Number of Industries 309;
Total Number of Facilities 65,738;
Number of Occupations 193;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 1,329,322;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 441,902


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/99/166654)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-reciprocal translocation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: N crassa-reversion; E coli polA without S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae gene conversion; S cerevisiae-reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: In vitro UDS-human fibroblast
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: CHO gene mutation
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as an industrial chemical, cosmetic, perfume ingredient, in manufacture of plastics
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 34, APRIL 1981
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Aldehydes, screening, 2539
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Formaldehyde by on dust (textile or wood), 5700
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Formaldehyde by GC, 2541; by VIS, 3500
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-102
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #52
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID205


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

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50RXAH "Formaldehyde: Toxicology, Epidemiology, Mechanisms, Papers of a Meeting, 2nd, 1982," Clary, J.J., et al., eds., New York, Marcel Dekker, 1983
85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970
85DKA8 "Cutaneous Toxicity, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference, 1976," Drill, V.A., and P. Lazar, eds., New York, Academic Press, Inc. 1977
85GMAT "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982
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ENDOAO Endocrinology (Baltimore). (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21203) V.1- 1917-
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ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
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EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
EVSRBT Environmental Science Research. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.1- 1972-
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FAONAU FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series. (Rome, Italy) No.?-57, 1948-77. Discontinued.
FATOAO Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (Moscow). For English translation, see PHTXA6 and RPTOAN. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.2- 1939-
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
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FTRPAE Fitoterapia. (Inverni della Beffa SpA, via Ripamonti, 99, 20141 Milan, Italy) V.18- 1947-
GANNA2 Gann. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research. (Tokyo, Japan) V.1-75, 1907-84. For publisher information, see JJCREP.
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
GMCRDC Gann Monograph on Cancer Research. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) No. 11- 1971-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HETOEA Human & Experimental Toxicology. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Brunel Road, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, RG21 2XS, UK) V.9- 1990-
HUTOX*
HYSAAV Hygiene and Sanitation (USSR). English translation of GISAAA. (Springfield, VA) 1964-71. Discontinued.
IAPWAR International Journal of Air and Water Pollution. (London, UK) V.4(1-4), 1961. For publisher information, see ATENBP.
ICMED9 Intensive Care Medicine. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.3- 1977-
IJEBA6 Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. (Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR, Hillside Rd., New Delhi 110 012, India) V.1- 1963-
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IMSUDL IARC Monographs, Supplement. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) No.1- 1979-
IPSTB3 International Polymer Science and Technology. (Rapra Technology Ltd., Shawbury, Shrewsbury, Shropshire SY4 4NR, UK)
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JAADDB Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. (C.V. Mosby Co., 11830 Westline Industrial Dr., St. Louis, MO 63141) 1979-
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MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
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NSAPCC Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberger, Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.272- 1972-
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
PHTOEH Pharmacology and Toxicology (Copenhagen). (Munksgaard International Pub., POB 2148, DK-1016 Copenhagen K, Denmark) V.60- 1987-
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TPKVAL Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. (Izdatel'stvo Meditsina, Moscow, USSR) No.1- 1961-
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Used as an industrial chemical, cosmetic, perfume ingredient, in manufacture of plastics

Top 50 chemical production: 6.98 billions lbs in 1992, 6.61 billions in 1991

2V03D09 ihl-mus TCLo:14300 ppb/6H/2Y-I CNREA8 43,4382,1983

2V03D09 ihl-mus TC :15 ppm/6H/104W-I EVSRBT 25,353,1982

2V01D09 ihl-rat TCLo:14300 ppb/6H/2Y-I CNREA8 43,4382,1983

2V01D09 ihl-rat TC :15 ppm/6H/78W-I CNREA8 40,3398,1980

2V03D09 ihl-rat TC :6 ppm/6H/2Y-I EVSRBT 25,353,1982

2V01D09 ihl-rat TC :15 ppm/6H/86W-I TXAPA9 81,401,1985

2V01D09 ihl-rat TC :14 ppm/6H/84W-I JJIND8 68,597,1982

2V03D09 ihl-rat TC :18750 ug/m3/2Y-I GISAAA 48(4),60,1983

2V01D09 ihl-rat TC :15 ppm/6H/2Y-I CIIT** DOCKET #10992,1982

2V03D09 ihl-rat TC :5600 ppb/6H/2Y-I CNREA8 43,4382,1983

2V03D09 ihl-rat TC :14300 ppb/6H/2Y-I 50EXAK -,111,1983

3V01K60P61orl-rat TDLo:109 gm/kg/2Y-C TIHEEC 5,699,1989

2V03V10 scu-rat TDLo:1170 mg/kg/65W-I GANNA2 45,451,1954

3V03R60V10scu-rat TD :350 mg/kg/78W-I FAONAU 50A,71,1972

NIOSH PROFILE (HAIRDRESSING and BARBERS), SRC, 6/80

NIOSH PROFILE (INCINERATION), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (LEATHER TANNING), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESSING), FIRL, 4/78

FDA-over the counter drug

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Hormone
   Primary Irritant

ALT CAS #: 8005-38-7
ALT CAS #: 8006-07-3
ALT CAS #: 8013-13-6
ALT CAS #: 112068-71-0
Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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