CDC logo, Safer Healthier People  CDC HomeCDC SearchCDC Health Topics A-Z
NIOSH - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Search NIOSH  |  NIOSH Home  |  NIOSH Topics  |  Site Index  |  Databases and Information Resources  |  NIOSH Products  |  Contact Us






Ethane, 1,1,1 - trichloro - 2,2 - bis (p - chlorophenyl) -

RTECS #: KJ3325000

CAS #: 50-29-3


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 354.48 MF: C14H9Cl5


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 1,1,1 - Trichloor - 2,2 - bis (4 - chloor fenyl) - ethaan (Dutch)
  2. 1,1,1 - Trichlor - 2,2 - bis (4 - chlor - phenyl) - aethan (German)
  3. 1,1,1 - Trichloro - 2,2 - bis (p - chlorophenyl) ethane
  4. 1,1,1 - Trichloro - 2,2 - di (4 - chlorophenyl) - ethane
  5. 1,1,1 - Tricloro - 2,2 - bis (4 - cloro - fenil) - etano (Italian)
  6. 1,1,1 - trichloro - 2,2 - bis (p - chlorophenyl) ethane
  7. 1,1 - Bis - (p - chlorophenyl) - 2,2,2 - trichloroethane
  8. 2,2 - Bis (p - chlorophenyl) - 1,1,1 - trichloroethane
  9. 4,4' - DDT
  10. 4,4' - Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
  11. Aavero - extra
  12. Agritan
  13. Arkotine
  14. Azotox
  15. Azotox M 33
  16. Benzene, 1,1' - (2,2,2 - trichloroethylidene) bis (4 - chloro -
  17. Benzochloryl
  18. Bosan Supra
  19. Bovidermol
  20. Chlorophenothan
  21. Chlorophenothane
  22. Chlorophenotoxum
  23. Citox
  24. Clofenotane
  25. DDT
  26. DDT (ACGIH:OSHA)
  27. DDT technical
  28. Deoval
  29. Detox
  1. Detoxan
  2. Dibovin
  3. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
  4. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ACGIH:OSHA)
  5. Dicophane
  6. Dodat
  7. Dykol
  8. ENT 1,506
  9. Estonate
  10. Gesafid
  11. Gesarol
  12. Hildit
  13. Ivoran
  14. Mutoxan
  15. NCI - C00464
  16. Neocid
  17. Neocidol (solid)
  18. OMS 16
  19. PEB1
  20. Parachlorocidum
  21. Pentachlorin
  22. RCRA waste number U061
  23. Santobane
  24. Tafidex
  25. Trichlorobis (4 - chlorophenyl) ethane
  26. Zerdane
  27. alpha,alpha - Bis (p - chlorophenyl) - beta,beta,beta - trichlorethane
  28. p,p' - DDT
  29. p,p' - Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis chicken embryo 5 gm/L EXPEAM 30,920,1974
cytogenetic analysis oral
Drosophila melanogaster
1 g AJBSAM 27,427,1974
cytogenetic analysis human leukocyte 40 mg/L HOEKAN 29,33,1979
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 200 g/L/72 hour MUREAV 40,131,1976
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
mouse
50 ppm CNJGA8 16,491,1974
cytogenetic analysis unreported route
mouse
50 mg/kg PHTHDT 6,147,1979
cytogenetic analysis oral
mouse
300 mg/kg AJBSAM 27,427,1974
cytogenetic analysis quail embryo 5 gm/L EXPEAM 30,920,1974
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
rat
100 mg/kg JCLBA3 47,78a,1970
cytogenetic analysis rat other cell types 10 g/L 34LXAP -,555,1976
dominant lethal test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
1 g AJBSAM 27,427,1974
dominant lethal test oral
mouse
100 mg/kg PHTHDT 6,147,1979
dominant lethal test unreported route
mouse
200 mg/kg/10 week- intermittent PHTHDT 6,147,1979
dominant lethal test oral
other insects
200 ppm ETEAAT 12,221,1969
dominant lethal test oral
rat
100 mg/kg FCTXAV 11,53,1973
DNA adduct Escherichia coli 15 mol/L MUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA adduct mouse Ascites tumor 15 mol/L MUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA inhibition Drosophila melanogaster other cell types 250 ppb EXPEAM 41,745,1985
DNA inhibition human lymphocyte 500 mg/L ARTODN 45,101,1980
DNA inhibition intraperitoneal
mouse
20 gm/kg ARGEAR 51,605,1981
DNA inhibition other microorganisms 50 ppm/24 hour IJEBA6 19,568,1981
DNA inhibition rat other cell types 100 mg/L ARTODN 45,101,1980
unscheduled DNA synthesis rat liver 100 pmol/L CRNGDP 5,1547,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis oral
rat
50 mol/kg CRNGDP 8,1433,1987
morphological transform mouse embryo 42,600 nmol/L JNCIAM 54,981,1975
morphological transform mouse other cell types 5 mg/L/12 day MUREAV 557,191,2004
morphological transform oral
rat
4,620 mg/kg/77 day- continuous CRNGDP 11,1413,1990
other mutation test systems chicken embryo 5 gm/L EXPEAM 30,920,1974
other mutation test systems human fibroblast 100 mg/kg GTPZAB 17(3),32,1973
other mutation test systems mammal (species unspecified) fibroblast 50 mg/L AECTCV 15,581,1986
other mutation test systems oral
mouse
18 mg/kg MUREAV 343,157,1995
other mutation test systems other microorganisms 50 ppm/24 hour IJEBA6 19,568,1981
other mutation test systems quail embryo 5 gm/L EXPEAM 30,920,1974
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction oral
Drosophila melanogaster
1 g AJBSAM 27,427,1974
sperm morphology oral
rat
1 gm/kg/2 day- intermittent BECTA6 14,171,1975


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg (1-3 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea) BECTA6 9,267,1973
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders AMBOCX 1,148,1972
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg (3 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina TXAPA9 18,348,1971
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kg (21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NATUAS 228,1222,1970
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 3,540 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
AECTCV 6,83,1977
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 504 mg/kg (21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral ENPBBC 4,189,1974
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 81 mg/kg (4 week male/4 week prior to copulation-2 week after birth) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility TXAPA9 10,54,1967
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 124 mg/kg (62 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders ENPBBC 3,127,1973
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 148 mg/kg (66 day prior to copulation/1-8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea) ENPBBC 3,127,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 112 mg/kg (56 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
IJEBA6 16,1002,1978
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea) FCTXAV 11,53,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 430 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) BECTA6 12,373,1974
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,890 mg/kg (36 week prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated) AECTCV 3,479,1975/1976
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg (15-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system BNEOBV 26,283,1975
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility FCTXAV 11,53,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg (34 day prior to copulation/1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)
AECTCV 3,479,1976
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg (7-9 day pregnant) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
AIPTAK 192,286,1971
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 418 mg/kg (6-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord) NTIS** PB223-160
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 143 mg/kg (21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects ENPBBC 5,54,1975
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg (3 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders
IJMRAQ 65,576,1977
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg (10-17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TXAPA9 22,327,1972
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 17,500 g/kg (8-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral PSYPAG 12,424,1968


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 21,280 mg/kg/38 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Uterine tumors
PSEBAA 134,113,1970
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 24 mg/kg (multigenerations) Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Liver: Tumors
JNCIAM 51,983,1973
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 73 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
FCTXAV 7,215,1969
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 7,560 mg/kg/90 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
FCTXAV 11,433,1973
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 5,600 mg/kg/80 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
IJCNAW 19,725,1977
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 3,150 mg/kg/15 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
ZKKOBW 82,25,1974
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 3,408 mg/kg (multigenerations) Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
IJCNAW 11,688,1973
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8,760 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,380 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,225 mg/kg/7 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TUMOAB 61,113,1975
oral
rat
toxic dose : 12,096 mg/kg/3 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TUMOAB 68,11,1982
oral
rat
toxic dose : 8,100 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TXAPA9 11,88,1967
oral
rat
toxic dose : 19 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
IJCNAW 19,179,1977
oral
rat
toxic dose : 438 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
REONBL 26,177,1979
oral
rat
toxic dose : 17,976 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TUMOAB 68,11,1982
oral
rat
toxic dose : 24,192 mg/kg/3 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TUMOAB 68,11,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 29.2 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 31.76 gm/kg/4 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 26.5 gm/kg/151 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20.99 gm/kg/120 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9.03 gm/kg/43 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
TXAPA9 208,285,2005
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 370 mg/kg/80 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
IJCNAW 19,725,1977


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal concentration: 200 mg/m3 Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVGK* -,67,1984
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg Immunological Including Allergic: Anaphylaxis (multiple organ involvement) HBPTO* 1,770,2001
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 150 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1308,2001
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 32 mg/kg N/R PESTD5 17,351,1976
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,000 g/kg Liver: Other changes

Endocrine: Estrogenic

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXAPA9 201,137,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 9,100 g/kg N/R PESTD5 17,351,1976
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Endocrine: Estrogenic

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight
TXAPA9 14,358,1969
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Related to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight HBPTO* 2,1320,2001
intravenous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 40 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Excitement
JPETAB 86,213,1946
intravenous
cat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 32 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1308,2001
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 75 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
JPETAB 86,213,1946
intravenous
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 68 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1308,2001
intravenous
monkey
lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
JPETAB 86,213,1946
intravenous
monkey
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 55 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1308,2001
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 47 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1308,2001
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Excitement
JPETAB 86,213,1946
intravenous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 30 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1308,2001
oral
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 250 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Excitement
JPETAB 86,213,1946
oral
cat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1308,2001
oral
chicken
lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kg N/R MEMOAQ 4,25,1950
oral
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 150 mg/kg N/R YKYUA6 32,463,1981
oral
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,000 mg/kg Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVGK* -,67,1984
oral
domestic animal
lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kg N/R MEMOAQ 4,25,1950
oral
frog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7,600 g/kg N/R ENVPAF 20,45,1979
oral
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 150 mg/kg N/R EJTXAZ 7,159,1974
oral
hamster
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >5 gm/kg N/R LBASAE 26,274,1976
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
85KYAH 11,446,1989
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Analgesia
PHARAT 2,268,1947
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold HBPTO* 2,1322,2001
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 3.57 mg/kg Taste: Change in function HBPTO* 2,1323,2001
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 10.71 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving peripheral nerve

Behavioral: Ataxia
HBPTO* 2,1323,2001
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 21.43 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Headache

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
HBPTO* 2,1323,2001
oral
infant
lowest published lethal dose: 150 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema BMJOAE 2,845,1945
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kg Behavioral: Headache

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Skin and Appendages: Other: Sweating
CMEP** -,1,1956
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 71.43 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Ataxia

Liver: Jaundice, other or unclassified
HBPTO* 2,1329,2001
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 4.29 mg/kg Cardiac: Change in force of contraction

Behavioral: Headache

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
HBPTO* 2,1329,2001
oral
monkey
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kg N/R AVPCAQ 12,31,1975
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kg Liver: Liver function tests impaired ETOPFR 2,307,1996
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kg Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVGK* -,67,1984
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1308,2001
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 87 mg/kg N/R DOEAAH 35,25,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TOSCF2 54,81,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.) TOSCF2 54,81,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) REPTED 6,491,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Endocrine: Hyperglycemia HBPTO* 2,1317,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase HBPTO* 2,1318,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests HBPTO* 2,1321,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
NRTXDN 8,15,1987
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 350 mg/kg Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVGK* -,67,1984
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
ARTODN 79,7,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mg/kg Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TOXID9 1,51,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation TOXID9 90,373,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
JTSCDR 29,505,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 106 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
JTSCDR 28,403,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 97 mg/kg Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JTSCDR 28,403,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg Liver: Other changes TXCYAC 238,49,2007
oral
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 250 mg/kg N/R PCOC** -,347,1966
oral
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 400 mg/kg Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVGK* -,67,1984
parenteral
frog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 24,100 g/kg N/R AIPTAK 74,343,1947
subcutaneous
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 900 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
BMJOAE 1,865,1945
subcutaneous
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 900 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1308,2001
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1308,2001
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,500 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
BMJOAE 1,865,1945
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 160 mg/kg/18 hour Endocrine: Estrogenic

Endocrine: Changes in endocrine weight (unspecified)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other carbohydrates
JAFCAU 18,1108,1970
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 95 mg/kg Endocrine: Estrogenic JAFCAU 18,1108,1970
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1308,2001
subcutaneous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 250 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
BMJOAE 1,865,1945
subcutaneous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 250 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1308,2001
skin
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 gm/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
BMJOAE 1,865,1945
skin
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,000 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1308,2001
skin
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 250 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1308,2001
skin
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 250 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1308,2001
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
BMJOAE 1,865,1945
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1308,2001
unreported route
human
lowest published lethal dose: 70 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,68,1984
unreported route
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kg N/R GTPZAB 17(3),32,1973
unreported route
man
lowest published lethal dose: 221 mg/kg N/R 85DCAI 2,73,1970
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes TOXID9 66,131,2002
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests TOXID9 66,131,2002
unreported route
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kg N/R GISAAA 37(10),27,1972


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 mg/m3/2 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field VCVGK* -,69,1994
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 mg/m3/3 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field VCVGK* -,69,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 mg/m3/4 hour/2 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field VCVGK* -,69,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 15 mg/m3/90 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field VCVGK* -,69,1994
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 mg/m3/4 hour/14 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field VCVGK* -,69,1994
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 630 mg/kg/12 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
LPDSAP 7,182,1972
intraperitoneal
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 187.5 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Endocrine: Estrogenic SCIEAS 162,371,1968
intraperitoneal
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 1,875 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Endocrine: Estrogenic SCIEAS 162,371,1968
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight TXAPA9 14,358,1969
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent Endocrine: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TXAPA9 111,99,1991
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Endocrine: Androgenic

Endocrine: Estrogenic

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
CLPTAT 14,727,1976
intratracheal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight
BECTA6 34,63,1985
oral
domestic bird
lowest published toxic dose: 630 gm/kg/12 day- continuous Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) THAUC* 79,104,1962
oral
domestic bird
lowest published toxic dose: 140 gm/kg/8 day- continuous Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field THAUC* 79,104,1962
oral
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 612.5 mg/kg/35 day- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response HBPTO* 1,770,2001
oral
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/40 day- continuous Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
HBPTO* 1,770,2001
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 116.8 gm/kg/4 year- continuous Liver: Multiple effects

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 73 gm/kg/4 year- continuous Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 1,867 mg/kg/42 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
BCTKAG 7,37,1974
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 65.7 gm/kg/78 week- continuous Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 11,200 mg/kg/32 week- continuous Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 14,626,1969
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 91 mg/kg/26 week- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.) TXAPA9 21,98,1972
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 17,500 mg/kg/10 week- continuous Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AIPTAK 141,111,1963
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg/14 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOLED5 34,47,1986
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 17.5 gm/kg/10 week- continuous Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 4,900 mg/kg/14 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 504 mg/kg/12 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
BECTA6 37,433,1986
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 53,088 g/kg/24 week- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response BECTA6 48,535,1992
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 25.19 gm/kg/78 week- continuous Liver: Other changes HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8,760 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Liver: Other changes HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
ENPBBC 4,116,1974
oral
pigeon
lowest published toxic dose: 1,517 mg/kg/42 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight
SCIEAS 166,1278,1969
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 12,200 mg/kg/61 day- continuous Liver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Conditioned vitamin deficiency
BECTA6 9,179,1973
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 60,714 mg/kg/17 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Thyroid weight (goiter)

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight
POSCAL 53,125,1974
oral
quail
lowest published toxic dose: 12,600 mg/kg/18 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight
POSCAL 53,125,1974
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 336 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Peptidases
IJEBA6 35,1132,1997
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 91,250 g/kg/2 year- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight JAFCAU 3,402,1955
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 754 mg/kg/52 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
AECTCV 10,459,1981
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 91 mg/kg/26 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Endocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
GISAAA 33(1),42,1968
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,300 mg/kg/14 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
APTOA6 28,149,1970
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 462 mg/kg/22 week- continuous Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
BECTA6 39,827,1987
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,510 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Behavioral: Tremor

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 16,171,1970
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 38.64 mg/kg/161 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes HBPTO* 1,59,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/35 day- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
HBPTO* 1,770,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 547.5 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Liver: Multiple effects HBPTO* 2,1311,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 225 mg/kg/45 day- intermittent Endocrine: Hyperglycemia HBPTO* 2,1317,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 105 mg/kg/21 day- continuous Behavioral: Ataxia HBPTO* 2,1321,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,650 mg/kg/26 week- intermittent Liver: Multiple effects VCVGK* -,68,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,400 mg/kg/60 day- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral response

Immunological Including Allergic: Hypersensitivity delayed (multiple organ involvement)
HBPTO* 1,770,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,140 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field HBPTO* 2,1309,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14.6 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Liver: Multiple effects

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HBPTO* 2,1310,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/3 week- intermittent Endocrine: Androgenic BECTA6 18,231,1977
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,400 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field BECTA6 18,231,1977
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 23.1 g/kg/11 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Tumorigenic: Protects against induction of experimental tumors

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 208,285,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9,030 mg/kg/43 week- continuous Liver: Tumors

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXAPA9 208,285,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,730 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight TXAPA9 208,285,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.9 mg/kg/43 week- continuous Liver: Other changes TXAPA9 208,285,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight TXAPA9 218,280,2007
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg/20 day- intermittent Behavioral: Tremor

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
BMJOAE 1,865,1945
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 10.5 mg/kg/57 day- continuous Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TXAPA9 32,587,1975
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 52.4 mg/kg/57 day- continuous Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight TXAPA9 32,587,1975
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 0.75 gm/kg/15 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field

Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
JPETAB 99,140,1950
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 117.6 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Hypersensitivity delayed (multiple organ involvement) HBPTO* 1,770,2001
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Anaphylaxis (multiple organ involvement) HBPTO* 1,770,2001
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
BCPCA6 62,161,2001
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg/20 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
JEPOEC 9,283,1989


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 1 mg/m3 DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed animal carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 5,83,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 53,179,1991
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 5,83,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 53,179,1991
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 2B IMEMDT 53,179,1991
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JJIND8 93,768,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,101,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
SCIEAS 93,768,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ATXKA8 29,1,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ADCSAJ 1,160,1950
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENVRAL 7,243,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
RREVAH 48,141,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
RREVAH 59,119,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXAPA9 197,144,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
RREVAH 61,37,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NOALA4 41,271,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MZUZA8 (8),90,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CNDQA8 10(3),43,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ECMAAI 14,141,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DTTIAF 80,485,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
RREVAH 56,107,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AJDDAL 20,331,1953
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AJMEAZ 38,409,1965
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ETOXAC 7,1,1976
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
IRGGAJ 24,193,1968
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BISNAS 20,958,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
85CVA2 5,250,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PHTHDT 7,513,1979
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CTOXAO 13,231,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EESADV 1,89,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EESADV 1,503,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
GISAAA 42(9),66,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BLFSBY 24,129,1983
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NTIS** PB82-922903
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AECTCV 41,386,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BNYMAM 54,413,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 134,17,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 526,85,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
LANCAO 366,763,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 22,164,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 21,93,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NRTXDN 27,579,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BPCEM* 16,105,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CLBIAS 39,762,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,725,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,258,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,334,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOXIA6 49,413,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOXIA6 49,490,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTEHD6 7,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 23,337,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 23,260,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTPAE7 17,69,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 26,1,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTPAE7 19,111,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTPAE7 19,155,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTPAE7 19,155,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTPAE7 19,155,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 25,316,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ITODC* -,355,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 672,10,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 672,17,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 681,93,2009


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: Cancelled RBREV* -,170,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average (1 mg/m3) (skin) DTLVS* 3,67,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 3 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 1 mg/m3, continuous3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 1 mg/m3 (inhalable), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (resp), short term exposure limit 1 mg/m3 (resp), Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - INDIA time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 1 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 3 mg/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 1 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 0.1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.8 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 0.1 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 1 mg/m3, Skin, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Confirmed animal carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Confirmed animal carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO DDT-air Carcinogen;
10 hour time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (0.1 mg/m3 LOQ)
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 73750;
Number of Industries 1;
Total Number of Facilities 160;
Number of Occupations 2;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 160


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/95/100137/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; In vitro cytogenetics-nonhuman
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-partial sex chrom. loss
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: V79 cell culture-gene mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Host-mediated assay; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal; S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: D melanogaster-whole sex chrom. loss
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: D melanogaster-nondisjunction; Rodent dominant lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Mammalian micronucleus; E coli polA without S9
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as an insecticide
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (feed);no evidence:mouse,rat NCITR* NCI-TR-131,1978
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

34LXAP "Insecticide Biochemistry and Physiology," Wilkinson, C.F., ed., New York, Plenum Pub. Corp., 1976
85CVA2 "Oncology 1970, Proceedings of the Tenth International Cancer Congress," Chicago, Year Book Medical Pub., 1971
85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970
85KYAH "Merck Index; an Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals", 11th ed., Rahway, NJ 07065, Merck & Co., Inc. 1989
ADCSAJ Advances in Chemistry Series. (American Chemical Soc., Distribution Office Dept. 223, POB 57136, West End Stn., Washington, DC 20037) No.1- 1950-
AECTCV Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 070944) V.1- 1973-
AIPTAK Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. (Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium) V.4- 1898-
AJBSAM Australian Journal of Biological Sciences. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, 314 Albert St., E. Melbourne, Vic. 3002, Australia) V.6- 1953-
AJDDAL American Journal of Digestive Diseases. (New York, NY) V.5-22, 1938-55; New series: V.1-23, 1956-78. For publisher information, see DDSCDJ.
AJMEAZ American Journal of Medicine. (Technical Pub., 875 Third Ave., New York, NY 10022) V.1- 1946-
AMBOCX Ambio. A Journal of the Human Environment. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1972-
APTOA6 Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. (Copenhagen, Denmark) V.1-59, 1945-86. For publisher information, see PHTOEH
ARGEAR Archiv fuer Geschwulstforschung. (VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit Neue Gruenstr. 18, Berlin DDR-1020, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1- 1949-
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
ATXKA8 Archiv fuer Toxikologie. (Berlin, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.15-31, 1954-74. For publisher information, see ARTODN.
AVPCAQ Advances in Pharmacology and Chemotherapy. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.7-20, 1969-84.
BCPCA6 Biochemical Pharmacology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1958-
BCTKAG Bromatologia i Chemia Toksykologiczna. (Ars Polona, POB 1001, 00-068 Warsaw 1, Poland) V.4- 1971-
BECTA6 Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1966-
BISNAS BioScience. (American Institute of Biological Sciences, 1401 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22209) V.14- 1964-
BLFSBY Basic Life Sciences. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 223 Spring St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1973-
BMJOAE British Medical Journal. (British Medical Assoc., BMA House, Tavistock Sq., London WC1H 9JR, UK) V.1- 1857-
BNEOBV Biology of the Neonate. (S. Karger Pub., Inc., 79 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10003) V.15- 1970-
BNYMAM Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. (New York Academy of Medicine, 2 E. 103rd St., New York, NY 10029) Ser 2: V.1- 1925-
BPCEM* Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (Elsevier Ltd.) V.13- 1999-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CLBIAS Clinical Biochemistry (Ottawa). (Laureen Dodge, Bus. Off., Ottawa, Ont., Canada) V.1- 1967-
CLPTAT Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. (American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, St. Louis Mo Mosby-Year Book) V.1- 1960-
CMEP** "Clinical Memoranda on Economic Poisons," U.S. Dept. HEW, Public Health Service, Communicable Disease Center, Atlanta, GA, 1956
CNDQA8 Cahiers de Nutrition et de Dietetique. (Editions Meteore, 42, rue du Louvre, 75001 Paris, France) V.1- 1966-
CNJGA8 Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology. (National Research Council of Canada, Publication Sales and Distribution, Ottawa ON K1A OR6, Canada) V.1- 1959-
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
CTOXAO Clinical Toxicology. (New York, NY) V.1-18, 1968-81. For publisher information, see JTCTDW.
DIMON* Disease-a Month (Chicago : Year Book Publishers) V. 24- 1978-
DOEAAH Down to Earth. (Dow Chemical USA, Agricultural Products Dept., Midland, MI 48640) V.1- 1945-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
DTTIAF Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift. (Hanover, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-77, 1893-1970.
ECMAAI Economie et Medecine Animales. (Paris, France) V.1-17, 1960-76. Discontinued.
EESADV Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1977-
EJTXAZ European Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene. (Paris, France) V.7-9, 1974-76. For publisher information, see TOERD9.
ENPBBC Environmental Physiology and Biochemistry. (Copenhagen, Denmark) V.2-5, 1972-75. Discontinued.
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
ENVPAF Environmental Pollution. (Barking, UK) V.1-20, 1970-79.
ENVRAL Environmental Research. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1967-
ETEAAT Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. (Kluwer Academic Pub. Group, Distribution Centre, POB 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Netherlands) V.1- 1958-
ETOPFR Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology (Elsevier Science, P.O.Box 7247-7682,Philadelphia,PA 19170 -7682,USA OR Elsevier Science B.V.,P.O.Box 1270,1000 BG Amsterdam,The Netherlands) V.1- Feb.1996-
ETOXAC Essays in Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1969-
EXPEAM Experientia. (Birkhaeuser Verlag, POB 133, CH-4010 Basel, Switzerland) V.1- 1945-
FCTXAV Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. (London, UK) V.1-19, 1963-81. For publisher information, see FCTOD7.
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HBPTO* Handbook of pesticide toxicology. Robert Krieger ed, Academic press, 2001
HOEKAN Hokkaidoritsu Eisei Kenkyushoho. Report of the Hokkaido Institute of Public Health. (Nishi- 12-chome, Kita-19-jo, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060, Japan) No.1- 1951-
HTOPA*
IJCNAW International Journal of Cancer. (International Union Against Cancer, 3 rue du Conseil- General, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland) V.1- 1966-
IJEBA6 Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. (Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR, Hillside Rd., New Delhi 110 012, India) V.1- 1963-
IJMRAQ Indian Journal of Medical Research. (Indian Council of Medical Research, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India) V.1- 1913-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
IRGGAJ Internationales Archiv fuer Gewerbepathologie und Gewerbehygiene. (Heidelberg, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.19-25, 1962-69. For publisher information, see IAEHDW.
ITODC*
JAFCAU Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. (American Chemical Soc., Distribution Office Dept. 223, POB 57136, West End Stn., Washington, DC 20037) V.1- 1953-
JCLBA3 Journal of Cell Biology. (Rockefeller Univ. Press, 1230 York Ave., New York, NY 10003) V.12- 1962-
JEPOEC Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology. (Chem-Orbital, POB 134, Park Forest, IL 60466) V.5(4)- 1984-
JJIND8 JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.61-79, 1978-87. For publisher information, see JNCIEQ.
JNCIAM Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8.
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
JTPAE7 Journal of Toxicologic Pathology. (Nihon Dokusei Byori Gakkai, editor, 3-25-8 Nishi- shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105, Japan) V.1- 1988
JTSCDR Journal of Toxicological Sciences. (Japanese Soc. of Toxicological Sciences, 4th Floor, Gakkai Center Bldg., 4-16, Yayoi 2-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan) V.1- 1976-
LANCAO Lancet. (7 Adam St., London WC2N 6AD, UK) V.1- 1823-
LBASAE Laboratory Animal Science. (American Assoc. for Laboratory Animal Science, 210 N. Hammes Ave., Suite 205, Joliet, IL 60435) V.21- 1971-
LPDSAP Lipids. (American Oil Chemists' Soc., POB 5037, Stn. A., Champaign, IL 61820) V.1- 1966-
MEMOAQ Medizinische Monatsschrift. (Stuttgart, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-31, 1947-77.
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
MZUZA8 Meditsinskii Zhurnal Uzbekistana. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) No.1- 1957-
NATUAS Nature. (Nature Subscription Dept., POB 1018, Manasguan, NJ 08736) V.1- 1869-
NCITR* National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series. (Bethesda, MD) No.0-205. For publisher information, see NTPTR*.
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NOALA4 Nova Acta Leopoldina. (Johann Ambrosius Barth Verlag, Postfach 109, Leipzig DDR-7010, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1- 1932-
NRTXDN Neurotoxicology. (Intox Press, Inc., POB 34075, Little Rock, AR 72203) V.1- 1979-
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
PCOC** Pesticide Chemicals Official Compendium, Association of the American Pesticide Control Officials, Inc., 1966. (Topeka, KS)
PESTD5 Proceedings of the European Society of Toxicology. (Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.16-18, 1975-77. Discontinued.
PHARAT Pharmazie. (VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, Neue Gruenstr. 18, Berlin DDR-1020, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1- 1946-
PHTHDT Pharmacology and Therapeutics. (Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 0BW, UK) V.4- 1979-
POSCAL Poultry Science. (Poultry Science Assoc., Inc., 309 W. Clark St., Champaign, IL 61820) V.1- 1921-
PSEBAA Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1903/04-
PSYPAG Psychopharmacologia (Berlin). (Berlin, Ger.) V.1-46, 1959-76. For publisher information, see PSCHDL.
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
REONBL Revista Espanola de Oncologia. (Instituto Nacional de Oncologia, Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 3, Spain) V.1- 1952-
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
RREVAH Residue Reviews. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1962-
SCIEAS Science. (American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, 1333 H St., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1895-
THAUC* The Auk. Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club. (Washington, D.C. American Ornithologists' Union, etc.)
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
TOXIA6 Toxicon. (Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 OBW, UK) V.1- 1962-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TUMOAB Tumori. (Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Via G. Frua 6, 20146 Milan, Italy) V.1- 1911-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VCVGK* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia". (Hazardous substances. Galogen and oxygen containing substances), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1994.
YKYUA6 Yakkyoku. Pharmacy. (Nanzando, 4-1-11, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan) V.1- 1950-
ZKKOBW Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung und Klinische Onkologie. (Berlin, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.76-92, 1971-78. For publisher information, see JCROD7.

Used as an insecticide

FDA-over the counter drug

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

NIOSH Home |  NIOSH Search  |  Site Index  |  Topic List |  Contact Us