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Dipyrido (1,2 - a;2',1' - c) pyrazinediium, 6,7 - dihydro - , dibromide

RTECS #: JM5690000

CAS #: 85-00-7


UPDATE: May 2008 MW: 344.08 MF: C12H12N22Br


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 1,1' - Aethylen - 2,2' - bipyridinium - dibromid (German)
  2. 1,1' - Ethylene - 2,2' - bipyridylium dibromide
  3. 1,1' - Ethylene - 2,2' - dipyridylium dibromide
  4. 5,6 - Dihydro - dipyrido (1,2a;2,1c) pyrazinium dibromide
  5. 6,7 - Dihydropyrido (1,2 - a;2',1' - c) pyrazinedium dibromide
  6. 9,10 - Dihydro - 8a,10, - diazoniaphenanthrene dibromide
  7. 9,10 - Dihydro - 8a,10a - diazoniaphenanthrene (1,1' - ethylene - 2,2' - bipyridylium) dibromide
  8. Diquat dibromide
  1. Ethylene dipyridylium dibromide
  2. Ortho - Diquat
  3. PP 100
  4. Preeglone
  5. Reglon
  6. Reglone
  7. Weedtrine - D


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
10 mg mild BJIMAG 27,51,1970
skin
rabbit
400 mg/20 day mild BJIMAG 27,51,1970


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 20 mol/L TIVIEQ 3,53,1989
DNA inhibition human lymphocyte 500 mg/L ARTODN 45,101,1980
DNA inhibition rat other cell types 100 mg/L ARTODN 45,101,1980
DNA repair Salmonella typhimurium 10 g/plate MUREAV 68,183,1979
unscheduled DNA synthesis human other cell types 20 mg/L MUREAV 68,183,1979
unscheduled DNA synthesis human fibroblast 1 mol/L MUREAV 42,161,1977
mutation in microorganisms Aspergillus nidulans 500 g/plate (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 68,183,1979
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 2,200 nmol/L (-enzymatic activation step) ENMUDM 3,11,1981
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 100 nmol/plate (+enzymatic activation step) TOLED5 3,169,1979
micronucleus test oral
mouse
34.0 mg/kg MUTAEX 21,375,2006
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 1,000 ppm MUREAV 22,111,1974
sister chromatid exchange hamster lung 100 nmol/L TOLED5 31(Suppl),214,1986
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Aspergillus nidulans 10 gm/L MUREAV 68,183,1979


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 10,800 g/kg (9-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system BECTA6 25,513,1980
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
26UZAB 6,257,1968/1970
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg (17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TXAPA9 33,450,1975


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kg N/R PAREAQ 14,225,1962
intravaginal
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 400 L/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
JTCTDW 37,877,1999
intravenous
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 14 mg/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain 26UZAB 6,257,1968/1970
oral
duck
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 564 mg/kg N/R DOEAAH 35,25,1979
oral
domestic animal
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 30 mg/kg N/R 85GYAV -,102,1971
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 750 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Vascular: Shock

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
JTCTDW 37,881,1999
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 1,514 L/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Cardiac: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
JTCTDW 38,149,2000
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 68 mg/kg N/R MUTAEX 21,375,2006
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 120 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes PRKHDK 1,31,1975
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning HBPTO* 1,699,2001
oral
woman
lowest published lethal dose: 400 L/kg Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
AJMEAZ 70,1267,1981
oral
woman
lowest published lethal dose: 52.2 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes
AJEMEN 19,527,2001
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 11 mg/kg Eye: Mydriasis (pupilliary dilation)

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
BJIMAG 27,51,1970
skin
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 433 mg/kg N/R FAATDF 7,299,1986
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >500 mg/kg N/R WRPCA2 9,119,1970
unreported route
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 400 mg/kg N/R 30ZDA9 -,409,1971


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,900 g/m3/4 hour/19 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
KHZDAN 15,25,1972
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 42.5 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field MUTAEX 21,375,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 988 mg/kg/19 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Endocrine: Hypoglycemia

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Isomerases
KHZDAN 12,325,1969
skin
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 37.5 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HBPTO* 1,699,2001


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (inhalable) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (respirable, skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 1(1),93,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DTTIAF 80,485,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,78,2005


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: RED Completed RBREV* -,115,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 DTLWS* 3,17,1973
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 1.5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 0.5 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 0.5 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 0.05 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Not classifiable as human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Not classifiable as human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO DIQUAT-air 10 hour time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 83281;
Number of Industries 2;
Total Number of Facilities 98;
Number of Occupations 3;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 200


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
Used to control a wide range of aquatic and terrestrial weeds
On EPA IRIS database


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

26UZAB "Pesticides Symposia; Collection of Papers Presented at the Sixth & Seventh Inter-American Conferences on Toxicology and Occupational Medicine, Miami, FL," Miami, FL, J.L. Halos, 1968-70
30ZDA9 "Chemistry of Pesticides," Melnikov, N.N., New York, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 1971
85GYAV "Pflanzenschutz-und Schaedlingsbekaempfungsmittel: Abriss einer Toxikologie und Therapie von Vergiftungen," 2nd ed., Klimmer, O.R., Hattingen, Fed. Rep. Ger., Hundt-Verlag, 1971
AJEMEN American Journal of Emergency Medicine. (WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA) V.1- 1983-
AJMEAZ American Journal of Medicine. (Technical Pub., 875 Third Ave., New York, NY 10022) V.1- 1946-
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
BECTA6 Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1966-
BJIMAG British Journal of Industrial Medicine. (British Medical Journal, Box 560B, Kennebunkport, ME 04046) V.1- 1944-
CRTXB2 CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. (CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431) V.1- 1971-
DOEAAH Down to Earth. (Dow Chemical USA, Agricultural Products Dept., Midland, MI 48640) V.1- 1945-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
DTLWS* "Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Substances in Workroom Air," Supplements. For publisher information, see 85INA8.
DTTIAF Deutsche Tieraerztliche Wochenschrift. (Hanover, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-77, 1893-1970.
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
HBPTO* Handbook of pesticide toxicology. Robert Krieger ed, Academic press, 2001
JTCTDW Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.19- 1982-
KHZDAN Khigiena i Zdraveopazvane. Hygiene and Sanitation. (Hemus, Blvd. Russki 6, Sofia, Bulgaria) V.9- 1966-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
PAREAQ Pharmacological Reviews. (Williams & Wilkins, 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1949-
PRKHDK Problemi na Khigienata. Problems in Hygiene. (Durzhavno Izdatel'stvo Meditsina i Fizkultura, Pl. Slaveikov 11, Sofia, Bulgaria) V.1- 1975-
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
TIVIEQ Toxicology In Vitro. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
WRPCA2 World Review of Pest Control. (London, UK) V.1-10, 1962-71. Discontinued.

Used to control a wide range of aquatic and terrestrial weeds

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

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