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Cobalt

RTECS #: GF8750000

CAS #: 7440-48-4


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 58.93 MF: Co


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  4. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  5. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  6. REVIEWS:
  7. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  8. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  9. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  10. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Aquacat
  2. C.I. 77320
  3. Cobalt (ACGIH:OSHA)
  4. Cobalt metallic
  1. Cobalt - 59
  2. Kobalt (German, Polish)
  3. NCI - C60311
  4. Super cobalt


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
DNA damage human leukocyte 3 mg/L MUREAV 392,31,1997
DNA damage human lymphocyte 25 mol/L/1 hour TOXID9 12,430,2008
micronucleus test human leukocyte 600 g/L MUREAV 392,31,1997
micronucleus test human leukocyte 0.6 mg/L/15 minute MOCAT* 18,177,2003
other mutation test systems human leukocyte 6 mg/L/24 hour TXAPA9 227,299,2008


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
implant
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
ZEKBAI 52,425,1942
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 126 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
NATUAS 173,822,1954
intramuscular
rat
toxic dose : 126 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
BJCAAI 10,668,1956


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kg N/R EQSSDX 1,1,1975
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kg Vascular: Regional or general arteriolar or venous dilation

Liver: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
INMEAF 15,482,1946
intratracheal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 25 mg/kg N/R NTIS** AEC-TR-6710
intratracheal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes VCVN5* -,452,1989
intratracheal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
VCVN5* -,452,1989
intratracheal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 25 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration
VCVN5* -,452,1989
intratracheal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,500 g/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema HBTME* -,511,2007
intratracheal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosing alveolitis
HBTME* -,511,2007
intravenous
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kg N/R EQSSDX 1,1,1975
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kg N/R EQSSDX 1,1,1975
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 0.28 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema
VCVN5* -,457,1989
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6,171 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
ATDAEI 1,686,1992
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 750 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity) AIPTAK 62,347,1939


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 mg/m3/4 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial) VCVN5* -,463,1989
inhalation
pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 g/m3/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AIHAAP 36,17,1975
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 200 mg/m3/17 week- intermittent Vascular: Regional or general arteriolar or venous dilation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
GTPZAB 3(3),36,1959
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 mg/m3/24 hour/13 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Liver: Other changes
VCVN5* -,460,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.9 mg/m3/24 hour/4 week- continuous Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from afferent nerve VCVN5* -,460,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.9 mg/m3/24 hour/8 week- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
VCVN5* -,460,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.9 mg/m3/24 hour/8 week- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
VCVN5* -,460,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.9 mg/m3/24 hour/17 week- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): TCS cycle
VCVN5* -,461,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2 mg/m3/4 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosing alveolitis HBTME* -,511,2007
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/4 hour/1 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field VCVN5* -,457,1989
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/2 hour/56 day- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration
VCVN5* -,457,1989
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 390 mg/kg/15 day- intermittent Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction TOXID9 -,189,2008
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 360 mg/kg/36 day- continuous Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
VCVN5* -,458,1989


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.02 mg/m3 DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed animal carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 52,363,1991
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 52,363,1991
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 2B IMEMDT 52,363,1991
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TRBMAV 33,85,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AEMBAP 40,239,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ADTEAS 5,51,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
KOTTAM 11,1300,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FOREAE 7,313,1942
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MIBUBI 9,321,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FCTXAV 9,105,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
85CVA2 5,63,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PEXTAR 12,102,1969
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
GSAMAQ 123,109,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AMTODM 3,209,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,55,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,63,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 15,431,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 613,103,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,631,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JJATDK 26,191,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HBTME* ,511,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,515,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,515,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HTOPA* 1,595,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 681,93,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 681,93,2009


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (dust and fume) DTLVS* 3,59,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Co)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Co)/m3 (metal,fume,dust) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Co)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, fume and dust CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 0.1 mg(Co)/m3 (inhalable), JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 0.5 mg(Co)/m3 (inhalable), JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.02 mg/m3 (fume, dust), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 0.01 mg(Co)/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.4 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 0.05 mg/m3, 2B carcinogen, sen, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Co)/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 0.02 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3 (dust and fume), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 0.05 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 0.2 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 0.5 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3, Sen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.1 mg/m3, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Co)/m3 (sen), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Confirmed animal carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Confirmed animal carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO COBALT METAL, dust and fume-air 10 hour time-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3 NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 19770;
Number of Industries 27;
Total Number of Facilities 1,331;
Number of Occupations 27;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 8,513
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: X5978;
Number of Industries 8;
Total Number of Facilities 151;
Number of Occupations 7;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 1,326;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 128
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 19770;
Number of Industries 57;
Total Number of Facilities 3,263;
Number of Occupations 86;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 78,694;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 2,650


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/93/110724/AS)
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Cobalt and compounds as Co, 7027
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Elements by ICP, 7300
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Elements in blood or tissue, 8005
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID121


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85CVA2 "Oncology 1970, Proceedings of the Tenth International Cancer Congress," Chicago, Year Book Medical Pub., 1971
ADTEAS Advances in Teratology. (New York, NY) V.1-5, 1966-72. Discontinued.
AEMBAP Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.1- 1967-
AIHAAP American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. (AIHA, 475 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, OH 44311) V.19- 1958-
AIPTAK Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. (Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium) V.4- 1898-
AMTODM Advances in Modern Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.1, 1976-79. Discontinued.
ATDAEI Acute Toxicity Data. Journal of the American College of Toxicology, Part B. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 1651 Third Ave., New York, NY 10128) V.1- 1990-
BJCAAI British Journal of Cancer. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants. RG21 2XS, UK) V.1- 1947-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
EQSSDX Environmental Quality and Safety, Supplement. (Stuttgart, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-5, 1975-76. Discontinued.
FCTXAV Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. (London, UK) V.1-19, 1963-81. For publisher information, see FCTOD7.
FOREAE Food Research. (Champaign, IL) V.1-25, 1936-60. For publisher information, see JFDSAZ.
GSAMAQ Memoir--Geological Society of America. (POB 9140, Boulder, CO 80302) No.1- 1934-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HBTME*
HTOPA*
HUTOX*
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
INMEAF Industrial Medicine. (Chicago, IL) V.1-18, 1932-49. For publisher information, see IOHSA5.
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
KOTTAM Kogai to Taisaku. Journal of Environmental Pollution Control. (Kogai Taisaku Gijutsu Dokokai, Shuwa-Akasaka Bldg., 9-1-244, Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107, Japan) V.1- 1965-
MIBUBI Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni. Bulletin of Microbiology. (c/o Dr. A. Tevfik Cenqiz, Ankara Universitesi Tip Fakultesi Mikrobiyoloji Ana Bilim Dah, Ankara, Turkey) V.1- 1967-
MOCAT* Molecular Cancer Therapeutics (Philadelphia, PA : American Association for Cancer Research) V.1- 2001-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
NATUAS Nature. (Nature Subscription Dept., POB 1018, Manasguan, NJ 08736) V.1- 1869-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
PEXTAR Progress in Experimental Tumor Research. (S. Karger AG, Postfach CH-4009 Basel, Switzerland) V.1- 1960-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TRBMAV Texas Reports on Biology and Medicine. (Galveston, TX) V.1-41(2), 1943-81/82. Discontinued.
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
VCVN5* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov V-VII groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing V-VII group elements), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1989.
ZEKBAI Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung. (Berlin, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-75, 1903-71. For publisher information, see JCROD7.

NIOSH PROFILE (COBALT and ITS COMPOUNDS), SRI, 10/77

NIOSH PROFILE (HEAVY METAL GREASES AND SOAPS), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (SMELTERS, SECONDARY NON-FERROUS), SRI, 2/77

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Human Data

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