CDC logo, Safer Healthier People  CDC HomeCDC SearchCDC Health Topics A-Z
NIOSH - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Search NIOSH  |  NIOSH Home  |  NIOSH Topics  |  Site Index  |  Databases and Information Resources  |  NIOSH Products  |  Contact Us






Chromium

RTECS #: GB4200000

CAS #: 7440-47-3


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 52.00 MF: Cr


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  4. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  5. REVIEWS:
  6. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  7. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  8. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  9. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Chrome
  1. Chromium, metal (ACGIH)


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
DNA damage human lung 1 mol/L TOXID9 72,219,2003
DNA damage human lymphocyte 5 mol/L/1 hour TOXID9 12,430,2008


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,200 g/kg/6 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JNCIAM 16,447,1955
implant
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
ZEKBAI 52,425,1942
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,160 g/kg/6 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
JNCIAM 16,447,1955


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
unreported route
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 27,500 g/kg N/R GISAAA 37(10),27,1972


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 23,205,1980
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 49,49,1990
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 23,205,1980
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 49,49,1990
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 49,49,1990
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
85CVA2 5,63,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
KOTTAM 11,1300,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FOREAE 7,313,1942
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MIBUBI 9,321,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FCTXAV 9,105,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PEXTAR 12,102,1969
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
85DHAX Cr,22,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BNYMAM 54,413,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NTIS** CONF-691001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,55,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,63,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 134,17,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 589,111,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,600,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 533,183,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 544,305,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 23,297,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HBTME* ,487,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 544,313,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,515,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HTOPA* 1,595,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 681,93,2009


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 DTLVS* 3,56,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 mg(Cr)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 mg(Cr)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 mg(Cr)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 mg(Cr)/m3 CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 0.5 mg(Cr)/m3 (metal, dust), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 0.5 mg(Cr)/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 2 mg/m3, FEB 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 2 mg(Cr)/m3, FEB 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 0.01 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 0.5 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 0.5 mg/m3, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 0.5 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 0.5 mg(Cr)/m3, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.5 mg/m3, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (8 hour(s) metal), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CHROMIUM METAL-air 10 hour time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 19395;
Number of Industries 43;
Total Number of Facilities 1,375;
Number of Occupations 49;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 16,576
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: X5981;
Number of Industries 10;
Total Number of Facilities 318;
Number of Occupations 6;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 2,034;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 3
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: X5982;
Number of Industries 1;
Total Number of Facilities 19;
Number of Occupations 2;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 2,379
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 19395;
Number of Industries 228;
Total Number of Facilities 25,576;
Number of Occupations 101;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 386,142;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 10,433


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/89/236665/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in stainless steel, and in alloy steel to impart resistance to corrosion, oxidation
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 4, 1975
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Chromium and compounds as Co, 7024
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Elements in blood or tissue, 8005
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Metals in urine, 8310
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID125G


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85CVA2 "Oncology 1970, Proceedings of the Tenth International Cancer Congress," Chicago, Year Book Medical Pub., 1971
85DHAX "Medical and Biologic Effects of Environmental Pollutants Series," Washington, DC, National Academy of Sciences, 1972-77
BNYMAM Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. (New York Academy of Medicine, 2 E. 103rd St., New York, NY 10029) Ser 2: V.1- 1925-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
FCTXAV Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. (London, UK) V.1-19, 1963-81. For publisher information, see FCTOD7.
FOREAE Food Research. (Champaign, IL) V.1-25, 1936-60. For publisher information, see JFDSAZ.
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
HBTME*
HTOPA*
HUTOX*
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
JNCIAM Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8.
KOTTAM Kogai to Taisaku. Journal of Environmental Pollution Control. (Kogai Taisaku Gijutsu Dokokai, Shuwa-Akasaka Bldg., 9-1-244, Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107, Japan) V.1- 1965-
MIBUBI Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni. Bulletin of Microbiology. (c/o Dr. A. Tevfik Cenqiz, Ankara Universitesi Tip Fakultesi Mikrobiyoloji Ana Bilim Dah, Ankara, Turkey) V.1- 1967-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
PEXTAR Progress in Experimental Tumor Research. (S. Karger AG, Postfach CH-4009 Basel, Switzerland) V.1- 1960-
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
ZEKBAI Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung. (Berlin, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-75, 1903-71. For publisher information, see JCROD7.

Used in stainless steel, and in alloy steel to impart resistance to corrosion, oxidation

NIOSH PROFILE (SMELTERS, SECONDARY NON-FERROUS), SRI, 2/77

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Human Data

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

NIOSH Home |  NIOSH Search  |  Site Index  |  Topic List |  Contact Us