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4,4' - Bipyridinium, 1,1' - dimethyl - , dichloride

RTECS #: DW2275000

CAS #: 1910-42-5


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 257.18 MF: C12H14N22Cl


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 1,1' - Dimethyl - 4
  2. 1,1' - Dimethyl - 4,4' - bipyridynium dichloride
  3. 1,1' - Dimethyl - 4,4' - dipyridinium - dichlorid (German)
  4. 4' - bipyridilium dichloride
  5. 4,4' - Dimethyldipyridyl dichloride
  6. AH 501
  7. Bipyridinium, 1,1' - dimethyl - 4,4' - , dichloride
  8. Cekuquat
  9. Crisquat
  10. Dextrone
  11. Dextrone - X
  12. Dexuron
  13. Dimethyl viologen chloride
  14. Dwuchlorek 1,1' - dwumetylo - 4,4' - dwupirydyniowy (Polish)
  15. Esgram
  16. Galokson
  17. Goldquat 276
  18. Gramixel
  19. Gramoxon
  20. Gramoxone
  21. Gramoxone D
  22. Gramoxone S
  23. Gramoxone W
  1. Gramoxone dichloride
  2. Gramuron
  3. Herbaxon
  4. Herboxone
  5. Methyl viologen
  6. Methyl viologen (reduced)
  7. Methyl viologen dichloride
  8. Methylviologen
  9. N,N' - Dimethyl - 4,4' - bipyridinium dichloride
  10. OK 622
  11. Ortho paraquat CL
  12. Parakwat (Polish)
  13. Paraquat (OSHA)
  14. Paraquat CL
  15. Paraquat chloride
  16. Paraquat, dichloride
  17. Pathclear
  18. Pillarquat
  19. Pillarxone
  20. Praquat dichloride
  21. Toxer total
  22. Viologen, methyl -


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
25 mg mild BJIMAG 23,126,1966
eye
rabbit
12,500 g severe BECTA6 9,163,1973


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 20 mol/L TIVIEQ 3,53,1989
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 100 mg/L MUREAV 188,241,1987
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 7,715 mg/L MUREAV 319,89,1993
DNA damage human lymphocyte 250 mg/L MUREAV 344,41,1995
DNA damage rat lung 1 mol/L CRNGDP 19,809,1998
DNA inhibition human lymphocyte 900 mg/L ARTODN 45,101,1980
DNA inhibition rat other cell types 900 mg/L ARTODN 45,101,1980
DNA inhibition oral
rat
126 mg/kg FCTXAV 13,47,1975
DNA repair Salmonella typhimurium 100 g/plate MUREAV 68,183,1979
unscheduled DNA synthesis human fibroblast 20 mg/L MUREAV 68,183,1979
unscheduled DNA synthesis human other cell types 20 mg/L MUREAV 68,183,1979
mutation in microorganisms Aspergillus nidulans 400 g/plate (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 68,183,1979
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 2 gm/L (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 163,15,1986
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 1,000 ppm (-enzymatic activation step) IJEBA6 11,114,1973
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 2,500 ng/plate (+enzymatic activation step) TOLED5 3,169,1979
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 20 g/plate (-enzymatic activation step) ABCHA6 45,327,1981
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 12,859 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 319,89,1993
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 40 mg/L/16 hour MUTAEX 20,105,2004
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 100 mg/L/18 hour (+/-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 653,63,2008
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 100 ppm MUREAV 21,83,1973
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 60 mg/L EMMUEG 12,85,1988
other mutation test systems chicken liver 50 mg/L EJTXAZ 8,226,1975
other mutation test systems oral
rat
126 mg/kg FCTXAV 13,47,1975
other mutation test systems Salmonella typhimurium 1 gm/L MUREAV 192,239,1987
phage inhibition capacity Escherichia coli 2,090 mmol/L MUREAV 267,1,1992
sister chromatid exchange hamster fibroblast 1 mmol/L PAACA3 25,110,1984
sister chromatid exchange hamster lung 80 nmol/L TIVIEQ 3,53,1989
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 100 mg/L MUREAV 188,311,1987
sister chromatid exchange rat other cell types 1,250 g/L MUREAV 188,311,1987
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Aspergillus nidulans 20 gm/L MUREAV 68,183,1979
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction oral
Drosophila melanogaster
1,929 mg/L MUREAV 319,89,1993
specific locus test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
2 mmol/L MUREAV 280,291,1992
specific locus test multiple
Drosophila melanogaster
4 mmol/L MUREAV 440,139,1999


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 30,150 g/kg (8-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) TXAPA9 33,450,1975
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg (2 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea) REPTED 20,239,2005
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,500 g/kg (6 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system 26UZAB 6,257,1968/1970
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,163 gm/kg (multigeneration) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated) AECTCV 16,759,1987
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,785 gm/kg (multigeneration) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects AECTCV 16,759,1987
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 149 mg/kg (7-17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female NNGADV 13,157,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg (1-3 day pregnant) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility
MSCREJ 23,27,1995
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg (1-3 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
MSCREJ 23,27,1995
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg (1-3 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth MSCREJ 23,27,1995
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg (21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system JTSCDR 19,151,1994


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lethal concentration : >4 mg/m3/3.4 hour N/R BJIMAG 25,304,1968
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published lethal concentration: 2,200 g/m3/2.5 hour N/R BJIMAG 25,304,1968
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration : >2,200 g/m3/2.5 hour N/R BJIMAG 25,304,1968
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1 mg/m3/6 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
BJIMAG 25,304,1968
inhalation
rabbit
lethal concentration : >2,200 g/m3/2.5 hour N/R BJIMAG 25,304,1968
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3 mg/kg N/R BJIMAG 23,126,1966
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 20 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JPTLAS 128,21,1979
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 19 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
BJIMAG 23,126,1966
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 35 mg/kg Eye: Retinal changes pigmentary deposition, retinitis, other) JTEHD6 60,477,2000
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 20 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Peptidases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 216,181,2005
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Multiple effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TOXID9 227,73,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes TXCYAC 225,157,2006
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 18 mg/kg Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
VHTODE 21,404,1979
intraperitoneal
turkey
lowest published lethal dose: 20 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea POSCAL 52,1625,1973
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 34,500 g/kg Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
FAATDF 2,261,1982
intravenous
domestic animal
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 mg/kg N/R JTCTDW 19,911,1983
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 180 mg/kg N/R CSLNX* NX#00224
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 21 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
TXAPA9 22,241,1972
intravenous
turkey
lowest published lethal dose: 12,500 g/kg Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea POSCAL 52,1625,1973
multiple
woman
lowest published lethal dose: 12,200 g/kg/30 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase
YJBMAU 50,481,1977
ocular
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kg N/R BECTA6 9,163,1973
oral
cat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 35 mg/kg N/R IYKEDH 10,520,1979
oral
child
lowest published toxic dose: 30 L/kg Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
VHTODE 34,164,1992
oral
chicken
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 262 mg/kg N/R BJIMAG 23,126,1966
oral
duck
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 199 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 47,451,1979
oral
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 25 mg/kg N/R IYKEDH 10,520,1979
oral
domestic animal
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 30 mg/kg N/R 85GYAV -,104,1971
oral
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 22 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
EXMPA6 17,317,1972
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 214 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
YKYUA6 30,985,1979
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 1,720 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
CTOXAO 18,915,1981
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 57 g/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
BJCPAT 30,71,1976
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 3,380 L/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum
AJEMEN 6,509,1988
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 32 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
BMJOAE 3,290,1968
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 43 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria
BMJOAE 2,396,1978
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 857 g/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Liver: Jaundice, other or unclassified

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria
NIBKAW 70,118,1981
oral
monkey
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
EXMPA6 17,317,1972
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 120 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
GEPHDP 12,225,1981
oral
mouse
lethal dose : 175 mg/kg N/R TOLED5 143,51,2003
oral
pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 30 mg/kg N/R 85GYAV -,104,1971
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 57 mg/kg N/R RREVAH 10,97,1965
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 69,030 g/kg Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
AIMJA9 23,599,1972
oral
turkey
lowest published lethal dose: 250 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea POSCAL 52,1625,1973
oral
woman
lowest published lethal dose: 3 gm/kg Behavioral: Headache

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
FSIZAQ 27,494,1977
oral
woman
lowest published lethal dose: 111 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
AIMDAP 146,681,1986
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 0.7 mL/kg Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Blood: Hemorrhage

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
CTOXAO 43,291,2005
parenteral
frog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 260 mg/kg N/R ABHUE6 36,295,1985
parenteral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 57 L/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
FSINDR 49,215,1991
subcutaneous
man
lowest published lethal dose: 3 L/kg Autonomic Nervous System: Other (direct) parasympathomimetic

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Liver: Jaundice, other or unclassified
BMJOAE 3,721,1967
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 37 mg/kg N/R NNGADV 13,157,1988
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 27 mg/kg N/R NNGADV 13,157,1988
skin
duck
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 600 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 47,451,1979
skin
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 80 mg/kg N/R WRPCA2 9,119,1970
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 325 mg/kg Skin: After topical application: Cutaneous sensitization (experimental) BJIMAG 23,126,1966
skin
turkey
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 375 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea POSCAL 52,1625,1973


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 400 g/m3/6 hour/3 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression FAATDF 10,717,1988
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,100 g/m3/4 hour/19 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
KHZDAN 15,25,1972
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 750 g/m3/6 hour/4 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
BJIMAG 25,304,1968
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 650 g/m3/1 hour/3 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Hemorrhage
BJIMAG 25,304,1968
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 735 mg/kg/21 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
JTEHF8 59,477,2000
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Blood: Hemorrhage

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
ARTODN 77,353,2003
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 64 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
EESADV 17,47,1989
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on cyclic nucleotides
EESADV 17,47,1989
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,276 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NNGADV 13,157,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 608 mg/kg/19 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Endocrine: Hypoglycemia

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
KHZDAN 12,325,1969
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,638 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Cardiac: Changes in heart weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NNGADV 13,157,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 187 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
EESADV 7,475,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 232 mg/kg/15 day- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JTEHD6 44,29,1995
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 13,140 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NNGADV 13,157,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 160 mg/kg/8 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field TXCYAC 236,199,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial) TXCYAC 236,199,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 56 mg/kg/91 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTSCDR 31,345,2006
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 35 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TOLED5 170,193,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression TOLED5 170,193,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 24 mg/kg/6 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia
TOLED5 170,193,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOLED5 170,193,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOLED5 170,193,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes TOLED5 170,193,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/6 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTSCDR 32,529,2007


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FEPRA7 35,89,1976
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CNDQA8 10(3),43,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 1(1),93,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DTTIAF 80,485,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EVHPAZ 15,121,1976
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AJHPA9 35,1368,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CTOXAO 14,1,1979
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 557,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,329,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FEREAC 71,52487,2006


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: RED Completed RBREV* -,140,1998
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin), respirable dust CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin), respirable dust CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin), respirable dust CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (respirable), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 0.1 mg/m3 (inhalable, skin), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.1 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 0.1 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.1 mg/m3,KZG- week 0.1 mg/m3, Skin, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 0.08 mg/m3 (respirable), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 84723;
Number of Industries 2;
Total Number of Facilities 699;
Number of Occupations 3;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 873


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae gene conversion
Used as an agricultural chemical and pesticide
On EPA IRIS database


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

26UZAB "Pesticides Symposia; Collection of Papers Presented at the Sixth & Seventh Inter-American Conferences on Toxicology and Occupational Medicine, Miami, FL," Miami, FL, J.L. Halos, 1968-70
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Used as an agricultural chemical and pesticide

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

ALT CAS #: 3765-78-4
ALT CAS #: 57593-74-5
ALT CAS #: 65982-50-5
ALT CAS #: 136338-65-3
ALT CAS #: 205105-68-6
ALT CAS #: 247050-57-3
Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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