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Benzidine, 3,3' - dichloro -

RTECS #: DD0525000

CAS #: 91-94-1


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 253.14 MF: C12H10Cl2N2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  4. REVIEWS:
  5. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  6. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  7. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  8. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. (1,1' - Biphenyl) - 4,4' - diamine, 3,3' - dichloro -
  2. 3,3' - Dichlorbenzidin (Czech)
  3. 3,3' - Dichloro - 4,4' - biphenyldiamine
  4. 3,3' - Dichloro - 4,4' - diamino (1,1 - biphenyl)
  5. 3,3' - Dichloro - 4,4' - diaminobiphenyl
  6. 3,3' - Dichlorobenzidina (Spanish)
  7. 3,3' - Dichlorobenzidine
  8. 3,3' - Dichlorobenzidine (ACGIH)
  9. 3,3' - Dichlorobenzidine (OSHA)
  1. 3,3' - Dichlorobiphenyl - 4,4' - diamine
  2. 4,4' - Diamino - 3,3' - dichlorobiphenyl
  3. 4,4' - Diamino - 3,3' - dichlorodiphenyl
  4. C.I. 23060
  5. Curithane C126
  6. Dichlorobenzidine
  7. Dichlorobenzidine base
  8. RCRA waste number U073
  9. o,o' - Dichlorobenzidine


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
body fluid assay rat
Salmonella typhimurium
40 mg/kg SAIGBL 23,426,1981
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
mouse
100 mg/kg MUREAV 319,19,1993
DNA adduct mammal (species unspecified) lymphocyte 25,500 nmol/L CBINA8 38,369,1982
DNA damage human lymphocyte 40 mol/L/2 hour TOSCF2 72,283,2003
DNA damage oral
mouse
300 mg/kg MUREAV 440,1,1999
unscheduled DNA synthesis human HeLa cell 100 nmol/L CNREA8 38,2621,1978
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 50 g/plate (+enzymatic activation step) CALEDQ 4,21,1977
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 10 nmol/plate (-enzymatic activation step) MUTAEX 2,225,1987
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 15 mol/L/24 hour (+/-enzymatic activation step) TXCYAC 207,411,2005
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 4.88 g/plate/20 minute (+enzymatic activation step) MUTAEX 20,217,2005
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 0.5 g/plate (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 630,112,2007
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 4.88 g/plate/48 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUTAEX 20,217,2005
micronucleus test oral
mouse
1 gm/kg MUTAEX 2,267,1987
morphological transform hamster embryo 12,500 g/L AETODY 1,241,1980
morphological transform hamster kidney 80 g/L BJCAAI 37,873,1978
morphological transform mouse fibroblast 0.1 mg/L/21 day (-enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 35,300,2000
morphological transform rat embryo 5 mg/L JNCIAM 51,799,1973
other mutation test systems intraperitoneal
mouse
100 mg/kg MUREAV 319,19,1993


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 17 gm/kg/7 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
DUPON* HL623-74,1974
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 176 gm/kg/70 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
PAACA3 10,78,1969
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,100 mg/kg/43 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
VOONAW 5(5),524,1959
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 17 gm/kg/50 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
TXAPA9 31,159,1975
oral
rat
toxic dose : 20 gm/kg/52 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
VOONAW 5(5),524,1959
oral
rat
toxic dose : 21 gm/kg/50 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
TXAPA9 31,159,1975
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 320 mg/kg (15-21 day pregnant) Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
BEXBAN 78,1402,1974
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,200 mg/kg/47 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
VOONAW 5(5),524,1959
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,600 mg/kg/61 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Other: Breast
VOONAW 21(6),110,1975
subcutaneous
rat
toxic dose : 7 gm/kg/43 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
VOONAW 5(5),524,1959


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Control as low as possible DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed animal carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 4,49,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 29,239,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 29,239,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 2B IMSUDL 7,193,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ADCSAJ 13,271,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,347,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TCMUD8 23(Suppl 1),187,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 588,88,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 612,58,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOPADD 33,63,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTPAE7 19,1,2006


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD skin-HUMAN CARCINOGEN, NO ASSIGNED time-weighted average DTLVS* 3,77,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) see Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29,1910.1007 CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) see Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29,1926.1107 CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) see Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29,1915.1007 CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) cancer suspect agent CFRGBR 29,1910.1007,1987
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 0.03 mg/m3 (0.003 mL/m3) (inhalable), JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY ceiling concentration 0.03 mg/m3, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN Group B Carcinogen, Sen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.003 ppm (0.03 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Confirmed animal carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Confirmed animal carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO 3,3'-DICHLOROBENZIDINE-air Carcinogen use 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1910.1007 NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/99/121980)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: In vitro UDS-human fibroblast
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine, 5509
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-65


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

ADCSAJ Advances in Chemistry Series. (American Chemical Soc., Distribution Office Dept. 223, POB 57136, West End Stn., Washington, DC 20037) No.1- 1950-
AETODY Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology. (Senate Press, Inc., P.O. Box 252, Princeton Junction, NJ 08550) V.1- 1980-
BEXBAN Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine (English Translation). Translation of BEBMAE. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.41- 1956-
BJCAAI British Journal of Cancer. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants. RG21 2XS, UK) V.1- 1947-
CALEDQ Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-
CBINA8 Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1969-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CNREA8 Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 1941-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
DUPON* E.I. Dupont de Nemours and Company, Technical Sheet. (1007 Market St., Wilmington, DE 19898)
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
IMSUDL IARC Monographs, Supplement. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) No.1- 1979-
JNCIAM Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8.
JTPAE7 Journal of Toxicologic Pathology. (Nihon Dokusei Byori Gakkai, editor, 3-25-8 Nishi- shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105, Japan) V.1- 1988
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
PAACA3 Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research. (Waverly Press, 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1954-
SAIGBL Sangyo Igaku. Japanese Journal of Industrial Health. (Nippon Sangyo Eisei Igakkai, Kosu Eisei Bldg., 1-29-8, Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160, Japan) V.1- 1959-
TCMUD8 Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1980-
TOPADD Toxicologic Pathology. (c/o Dr. F.A. de la Iglesia, Warner-Lambert Co., Pharmaceutical Research Div., POB 1047, Ann Arbor, MI 48106) V.6(3/4)- 1978-
TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VOONAW Voprosy Onkologii. Problems of Oncology. For English translation, see PONCAU. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-10, 1928-37; V.1- 1955-

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data

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