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Benzidine

RTECS #: DC9625000

CAS #: 92-87-5


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 184.26 MF: C12H12N2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  4. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  5. REVIEWS:
  6. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  7. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  8. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  9. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. (1,1' - Biphenyl) - 4,4' - diamine (9CI)
  2. 4,4' - Bianiline
  3. 4,4' - Biphenyldiamine
  4. 4,4' - Biphenylenediamine
  5. 4,4' - Diamino - 1,1' - biphenyl
  6. 4,4' - Diaminobiphenyl
  7. 4,4' - Diaminodiphenyl
  8. 4,4' - Diphenylenediamine
  9. Benzidin
  10. Benzidin (Czech)
  11. Benzidina (Italian)
  12. Benzidine (ACGIH:OSHA)
  1. Benzydyna (Polish)
  2. Biphenyl, 4,4' - diamino -
  3. C.I. 37225
  4. C.I. Azoic Diazo Component 112
  5. Fast Corinth Base B
  6. NCI - C03361
  7. RCRA waste number U021
  8. p,p' - Diaminobiphenyl
  9. p,p' - Dianiline
  10. p,p - Bianiline
  11. p - Diaminodiphenyl


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
body fluid assay rat
Salmonella typhimurium
250 µmol/kg TXCYAC 21,223,1981
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 160 mg/L EMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
mouse
25 mg/kg MUREAV 320,69,1994
cytogenetic analysis mouse lymphocyte 100 mg/L MUREAV 320,69,1994
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
other fish
10 mg/kg CBPCEE 82,489,1985
cytogenetic analysis rat liver 12,500 µg/L PMRSDJ 1,570,1981
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
rat
250 mg/kg MUREAV 182,309,1987
DNA adduct oral
dog
60 µmol/kg EVHPAZ 49,125,1983
DNA adduct dog other cell types 100 µmol/L CNREA8 44,1893,1984
DNA adduct human lymphocyte 30 µmol/L PNASA6 85,3513,1988
DNA adduct oral
mouse
9,600 µg/kg CNREA8 42,2678,1982
DNA adduct mouse liver 60 µmol/L JJIND8 62,947,1979
DNA adduct parenteral
rat
11,600 µg/kg CNREA8 42,2678,1982
DNA damage Bacillus subtilis 2 mg/disc PMRSDJ 1,175,1981
DNA damage hamster lung 100 µmol/L/2 hour BBRCA9 72,732,1976
DNA damage human fibroblast 3 mmol/L ENMUDM 7,267,1985
DNA damage human lymphocyte 100 µmol/L/2 hour TOSCF2 72,283,2003
DNA damage intraperitoneal
mouse
150 mg/kg BSIBAC 56,1673,1980
DNA damage oral
mouse
160 mg/kg MUREAV 440,1,1999
DNA damage rat liver 3 mmol/L SinJF# 26OCT1982
DNA damage intraperitoneal
rat
63 mg/kg CRNGDP 6,1285,1985
DNA damage oral
rat
200 mg/kg ENMUDM 4,667,1982
DNA inhibition human HeLa cell 600 µmol/L/30 minute- continuous JEPTDQ 2(1),65,1978
DNA inhibition oral
mouse
20 gm/kg ARGEAR 51,605,1981
DNA inhibition oral
mouse
200 mg/kg MUREAV 46,305,1977
DNA inhibition oral
rat
100 µmol/kg CRNGDP 8,1433,1987
DNA repair Escherichia coli 1 mg/plate MUREAV 54,101,1978
DNA repair Saccharomyes cerevisiae 100 mg/L PMRSDJ 1,502,1981
unscheduled DNA synthesis hamster liver 20 nmol/L MUREAV 136,255,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis human liver 10 mg/L MUREAV 206,91,1988
unscheduled DNA synthesis human HeLa cell 100 µmol/L CNREA8 38,2621,1978
unscheduled DNA synthesis human fibroblast 160 µg/L PMRSDJ 1,528,1981
unscheduled DNA synthesis oral
rat
200 mg/kg ENMUDM 4,553,1982
unscheduled DNA synthesis rat liver 100 nmol/L MUREAV 136,255,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis rabbit other cell types 100 µmol/L CRNGDP 8,401,1987
unscheduled DNA synthesis rabbit liver 1 µmol/L CNREA8 43,3120,1983
host-mediated assay mouse
Escherichia coli
220 mg/kg MUREAV 272,161,1992
host-mediated assay rat
Salmonella typhimurium
1 mmol/kg MUREAV 93,317,1982
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 100 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step) PMRSDJ 1,387,1981
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 400 ng/plate (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 175,11,1986
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 3 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step) TOSCF2 56,351,2000
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 1 nmol/plate/20 minute EMMUEG 38,268,2001
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 4 mg/L/72 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 558,181,2004
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 50 µmol/L/3 hour TCMUD8 23,47,2003
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
6,400 µg/kg PMRSDJ 1,686,1981
micronucleus test oral
mouse
300 mg/kg MUTAEX 2,267,1987
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
other fish
10 mg/kg CYTBAI 47,147,1986
micronucleus test subcutaneous
rat
410 mg/kg MUREAV 40,43,1976
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
rat
25 mg/kg TXCYAC 57,217,1989
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 100 mg/L PMRSDJ 1,491,1981
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 500 µg/L MUREAV 125,291,1984
morphological transform hamster embryo 50 µg/L CALEDQ 3,45,1977
morphological transform hamster kidney 80 µg/L BJCAAI 37,873,1978
morphological transform mouse embryo 2,500 µg/L TCMUD8 3,101,1983
morphological transform mouse fibroblast 1 mg/L/21 day (-enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 35,300,2000
other mutation test systems dog other cell types 100 µmol/L CNREA8 44,1893,1984
other mutation test systems intraperitoneal
mouse
25 mg/kg MUREAV 268,255,1992
other mutation test systems intraperitoneal
mouse
100 mg/kg MUREAV 319,19,1993
other mutation test systems Salmonella typhimurium 567 mg/L MUREAV 192,239,1987
phage inhibition capacity Escherichia coli 100 mmol/L MDMIAZ 31,11,1979
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 5 mg/L EMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 2 mg/L MUREAV 241,109,1990
sister chromatid exchange inhalation
man
7 µg/m3/27 week POLEAQ 35,53,1980
sister chromatid exchange intraperitoneal
mouse
7,700 µg/kg MUREAV 108,225,1983
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction parenteral
Drosophila melanogaster
5 mmol/L MUREAV 56,31,1977
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Saccharomyes cerevisiae 50 mg/L PMRSDJ 1,468,1981
specific locus test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
5 mmol/L/48 hour MUREAV 222,359,1989
specific locus test hamster ovary 600 mg/L PMRSDJ 1,594,1981
specific locus test hamster ovary 25 mg/L/9 day EMMUEG 16,260,1990


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 17,600 µg/m3/14 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Hematuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
AEHLAU 27,1,1973
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/56 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Leukemia
BEXBAN 69,68,1970
intratracheal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 315 mg/kg/34 week Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
BEXBAN 69,68,1970
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg/3 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
85DAAC 5,129,1966
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 108 mg/kg/27 day- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CNREA8 28,924,1968
oral
rat
toxic dose : 25,560 ng/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
EKSODD 9(4),73,1987
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8,400 mg/kg/35 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
VOONAW 17(5),61,1971
subcutaneous
mouse
toxic dose : 1,620 gm/kg/45 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
AICCA6 7,46,1950
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,200 mg/kg/26 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
VOONAW 10(5),50,1964
subcutaneous
rat
toxic dose : 850 mg/kg/32 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
VOONAW 20(2),53,1974
subcutaneous
rat
toxic dose : 800 mg/kg/60 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors

Blood: Tumors
VOONAW 20(8),69,1974
subcutaneous
rat
toxic dose : 2,025 mg/kg/27 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
CANCAR 3,789,1950
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,425 mg/kg/57 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
VOONC* 37,60,1991


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 110 mg/kg N/R PMRSDJ 1,682,1981
oral
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kg N/R AEXPBL 58,167,1907
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 214 mg/kg N/R NTIS** PB214-270
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 309 mg/kg N/R NTIS** PB214-270
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kg N/R AEXPBL 58,167,1907


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Control as low as possible DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Limited Evidence IMEMDT 1,80,1972
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 1,80,1972
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 29,149,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 29,149,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 1 IMSUDL 7,123,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EAHB** -,38,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
KHZHAZ 12(2),85,1976
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ADCSAJ 13,271,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BLFSBY 24,253,1983
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,321,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 134,39,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,347,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 19,547,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TCMUD8 23(Suppl 1),187,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 588,88,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 612,58,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,255,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,104,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 627,59,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 627,10,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTPAE7 18,69,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,649,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 608,136,2006


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD skin-HUMAN CARCINOGEN, NO ASSIGNED time-weighted average DTLWS* 3,11,1973
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) see Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29,1910.1010 CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) see Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29,1926.1110 CFRGBR 29,1926,55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) see Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29,1915.1010 CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) cancer suspect agent CFRGBR 29,1910.1010,1987
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA (Prohibited) Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND Carcinogen, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 0.001 ppm (0.008 mg/m3), continuous1 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY ceiling concentration 0.008 mg/m3, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA carcinogen, skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND carcinogen, skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 0 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 0 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN Group A Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Confirmed human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Confirmed human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO BENZIDINE-air Carcinogen use 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1910.1010 NIOSH* DHHS #95-121,1995
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 09830;
Number of Industries 4;
Total Number of Facilities 263;
Number of Occupations 5;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 1,166
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 09830;
Number of Industries 3;
Total Number of Facilities 252;
Number of Occupations 8;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 1,554;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 426


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/2001/109102)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; SHE-clonal assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-mouse embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Mammalian micronucleus; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro UDS in rat liver
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: E coli polA without S9; In vitro UDS-human fibroblast
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: CHO gene mutation
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in the manufacture of dyestuffs, and in rubber as a hardener
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Benzidine, 5509; in urine, 8306
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-65


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85DAAC "Bladder Cancer, A Symposium, Fifth Inter-American Conference on Toxicology and Occupational Medicine, Coral Gables, FL," Lampe, K.F., et al., eds., Coral Gables, FL, Aesculapius Pub., 1966
ADCSAJ Advances in Chemistry Series. (American Chemical Soc., Distribution Office Dept. 223, POB 57136, West End Stn., Washington, DC 20037) No.1- 1950-
AEHLAU Archives of Environmental Health. (Heldref Pub., 4000 Albemarle St., NW, Washington, DC 20016) V.1- 1960-
AEXPBL Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1-109, 1873-1925. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AICCA6 Acta Unio Internationalis Contra Cancrum. (Louvain, Belgium) V.1-20, 1936-64. For publisher information, see IJCNAW.
ARGEAR Archiv fuer Geschwulstforschung. (VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit Neue Gruenstr. 18, Berlin DDR-1020, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1- 1949-
BBRCA9 Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
BEXBAN Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine (English Translation). Translation of BEBMAE. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.41- 1956-
BJCAAI British Journal of Cancer. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants. RG21 2XS, UK) V.1- 1947-
BLFSBY Basic Life Sciences. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 223 Spring St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1973-
BSIBAC Bolletino della Societe Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale. (Casa Editrice Idelson, Via A. de Gasperi, 55, 80133 Naples, Italy) V.2- 1927-
CALEDQ Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-
CANCAR Cancer (Philadelphia). (Lippincott/Harper, Journal Fulfillment Dept., 2350 Virginia Ave., Hagerstown, MD 21740) V.1- 1948-
CBPCEE Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, C: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology. (Elsevier Science, 660 White Plains Rd., Tarrytown, NY 10591) V.74- 1983-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CNREA8 Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 1941-
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
CYTBAI Cytobios. (Faculty Press, 88 Regent St., Cambridge, UK) V.1- 1969-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
DTLWS* "Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Substances in Workroom Air," Supplements. For publisher information, see 85INA8.
EAHB** Environmental and Health Criteria for Benzidine. Meeting of DHEW Committee to Coordinate Toxicology and Related Programs, Feb. 15, 1974 at Sterling Forest, NY
EKSODD Eksperimental'naya Onkologiya. Experimental Oncology. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Mosow, USSR) V.1- 1979-
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
HUTOX*
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
IMSUDL IARC Monographs, Supplement. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) No.1- 1979-
JEPTDQ Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology. (Park Forest South, IL) V.1-5(3), 1977-81(?). For publisher information, see JEPOEC.
JJIND8 JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.61-79, 1978-87. For publisher information, see JNCIEQ.
JTPAE7 Journal of Toxicologic Pathology. (Nihon Dokusei Byori Gakkai, editor, 3-25-8 Nishi- shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105, Japan) V.1- 1988
KHZHAZ Khimiya i Zhizn. Chemistry and Life. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1965-
MDMIAZ Medycyna Doswiadczalna i Mikrobiologia. For English translation, see EXMMAV. (Ars Polona, POB 1001, 00-068 Warsaw 1, Poland) V.1- 1949-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
PMRSDJ Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1981-
PNASA6 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (National Academy of Sciences, Printing & Pub. Office, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20418) V.1- 1915-
POLEAQ Polski Tygodnik Lekarski. Polish Medical Weekly. (Ars Polona, POB 1001, 00 068 Warsaw 1, Poland) V.1- 1946-
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
SinJF# Personal Communication from J.F. Sina, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, West Point, PA 19486, Oct. 26, 1982
TCMUD8 Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1980-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VOONAW Voprosy Onkologii. Problems of Oncology. For English translation, see PONCAU. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-10, 1928-37; V.1- 1955-
VOONC* Voprosi oncologii (Questions of oncology. Journal of Petrov's Institute of Oncology, B. Zelenina str, 43a, Spb 197110, Russia) V.1- 1955-

Used in the manufacture of dyestuffs, and in rubber as a hardener

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Human Data

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