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Benzene, 1 - chloro - 4 - nitro -

RTECS #: CZ1050000

CAS #: 100-00-5


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 157.56 MF: C6H4ClNO2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 1 - Chloor - 4 - nitrobenzeen (Dutch)
  2. 1 - Chlor - 4 - nitrobenzol (German)
  3. 1 - Chloro - 4 - nitrobenzene
  4. 1 - Cloro - 4 - nitrobenzene (Italian)
  5. 4 - Chloro - 1 - nitrobenzene
  6. 4 - Chloronitrobenzene
  7. 4 - Nitro - 1 - chlorobenzene
  1. PNCB
  2. p - Chloronitrobenzene
  3. p - Nitrochloorbenzeen (Dutch)
  4. p - Nitrochlorobenzene
  5. p - Nitrochlorobenzene (ACGIH:OSHA)
  6. p - Nitrochlorobenzol (German)
  7. p - Nitroclorobenzene (Italian)


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 600 mg/L EMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
DNA damage intraperitoneal
mouse
60 mg/kg BSIBAC 56,1680,1980
DNA damage rat liver 5 mol/L MUREAV 131,215,1984
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 819 g/plate (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 116,217,1983
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 100 g/plate (-enzymatic activation step) ENMUDM 5(Suppl 1),3,1983
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 250 mg/L EMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 24 ppm/6 hour (13 week male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) NTPTR* NIH-93-3382
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4.4 gm/kg (7 day male/7 day prior to copulation/21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) NTIS** #RACB19077
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 58 gm/kg (15 week male/15 week prior to copulation/21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NTIS** #RACB19077
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NTIS** #RACB19077
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system NTIS** #RACB19077
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system
NTIS** #RACB19077
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4.4 gm/kg (1 week male/1 week prior to copulation/1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) NTPTR* RACB-19077
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 40 gm/kg (70 day male/70 day prior to copulation-2 week after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth) NTPTR* RACB-19077
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 45.5 gm/kg (70 day male/70 day prior to copulation-2 week after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NTPTR* RACB-19077
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 45.5 gm/kg (70 day male/70 day prior to copulation-2 week after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system
NTPTR* RACB-19077


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 194 gm/kg/78 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Vascular: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
JEPTDQ 2(2),325,1978
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 390 gm/kg/78 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Vascular: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
JEPTDQ 2(2),325,1978


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published lethal concentration: 25 ppm/7 hour N/R IMSUAI 19,317,1950
inhalation
rat
lowest published lethal concentration: 16,100 mg/m3/4 hour Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Corneal damage

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
NTIS** OTS0571644
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 420 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia
AGGHAR 17,217,1959
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 440 mg/kg N/R 85GMAT -,92,1982
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 420 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia
AGGHAR 17,217,1959
skin
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 16 gm/kg Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia
AGGHAR 17,217,1959
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,040 mg/kg N/R NTPTR* NIH-93-3382


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 12 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Blood: Changes in spleen
NTPTR* NIH-93-3382
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 46 mg/m3/6 hour/4 week- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
FAATDF 6,618,1986
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3 ppm/6 hour/13 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia

Blood: Changes in platelet count
NTPTR* NIH-93-3382
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 21,000 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis NTIS** #RACB19077
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8,960 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field NTPTR* RACB-19077
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,480 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis NTPTR* RACB-19077
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 45,500 mg/kg/175 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis NTPTR* RACB-19077
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 60,014.5 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTSCDR 31,9,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 77,941.5 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTSCDR 31,9,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 25,489.1 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
JTSCDR 31,9,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 30,421.3 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above
JTSCDR 31,9,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 10,965.5 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Blood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
JTSCDR 31,9,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,339.7 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Blood: Changes in spleen JTSCDR 31,9,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,350 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTIS** OTS0533716
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,640 mg/kg/2 year- intermittent Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia

Blood: Changes in spleen

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
NTIS** OTS0526382
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,400 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTIS** OTS0546099
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 309.4 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Blood: Changes in spleen

Blood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
JTSCDR 31,9,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 373.1 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Blood: Changes in spleen JTSCDR 31,9,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 127.4 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count JTSCDR 31,9,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,255.8 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Other changes
JTSCDR 31,9,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,073.8 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above
JTSCDR 31,9,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,530.8 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JTSCDR 31,9,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,095 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
JTSCDR 31,9,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 13,195 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases JTSCDR 31,9,2006
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg/10 day- intermittent Blood: Other changes FATOAO 35,108,1972


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed animal carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 65,263,1996
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 65,263,1996
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 65,263,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (skin) DTLVS* 3,184,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (skin) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.64 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 0.5 mg/m3 (0.075 mL/m3) (vapor, aerosol), JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.65 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.64 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 3 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 2 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 0.1 ppm (0.64 mg/m3), skin, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.6 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 1 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 2 mg/m3 (skin), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 1 mg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.64 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 1 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 3 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 0.1 ppm, short term exposure limit 1 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.075 ppm, Skin, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 1 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 2 mg/m3 (skin), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Confirmed animal carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Confirmed animal carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO p-NITROCHLOROBENZENE-air Carcinogen lowest feasible conc. (Sk) NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 50775;
Number of Industries 4;
Total Number of Facilities 30;
Number of Occupations 20;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 2,948;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 401


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, rubber, and agricultural chemicals
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0892-9003;8EHQ-0892-9298
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Nitrobenzenes, 2005
NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-33, October 2000


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85GMAT "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982
AGGHAR Archiv fuer Gewerbepathologie und Gewerbehygiene. (Berlin, Ger.) V.1-18, 1930-61. For publisher information, see IAEHDW.
BSIBAC Bolletino della Societe Italiana di Biologia Sperimentale. (Casa Editrice Idelson, Via A. de Gasperi, 55, 80133 Naples, Italy) V.2- 1927-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FATOAO Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (Moscow). For English translation, see PHTXA6 and RPTOAN. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.2- 1939-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
IMSUAI Industrial Medicine and Surgery. (Northbrook, IL) V.18-42, 1949-73. For publisher information, see IOHSA5.
JEPTDQ Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology. (Park Forest South, IL) V.1-5(3), 1977-81(?). For publisher information, see JEPOEC.
JTSCDR Journal of Toxicological Sciences. (Japanese Soc. of Toxicological Sciences, 4th Floor, Gakkai Center Bldg., 4-16, Yayoi 2-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan) V.1- 1976-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-

Used as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes, rubber, and agricultural chemicals

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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