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p - Xylene

RTECS #: ZE2625000

CAS #: 106-42-3


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 106.18 MF: C8H10


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  3. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  4. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  5. REVIEWS:
  6. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  7. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  8. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  9. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 1,4 - Dimethylbenzene
  2. 1,4 - Xylene
  3. Chromar
  4. P - Xylol
  1. Scintillar
  2. p - Dimethylbenzene
  3. p - Methyltoluene
  4. p - Xylene (ACGIH:OSHA)


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
N/R N/R N/R N/R


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 mg/m3/12 hour (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ATSUDG 8,425,1985
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,000 mg/m3/24 hour (9-10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other effects on female

Endocrine: Estrogenic
TXCYAC 19,263,1981
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 150 mg/m3/24 hour (7-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TXCYAC 18,61,1980
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,000 mg/m3/24 hour (7-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TXCYAC 18,61,1980
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 7 gm/m3 (7-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female TOLED5 34,223,1986
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 gm/m3/24 hour (7-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
ATSUDG 8,425,1985
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kg (12-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue) APTOD9 19,A22,1980


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
guinea pig
lethal concentration : >8,350 ppm/4 hour Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia
NTIS** OTS0556752
inhalation
mouse
lowest published lethal concentration: 15 gm/m3 Behavioral: General anesthetic

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Cardiac: Other changes
AEPPAE 143,223,1929
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4,550 ppm/4 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)
36YFAG -,302,1977
intraperitoneal
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal dose: 2 gm/kg N/R JPBAA7 46,95,1938
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,450 ÁL/kg N/R ARTODN 58,106,1985
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,810 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)
36YFAG -,302,1977
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,910 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,160,1990
subcutaneous
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal dose: 5 gm/kg N/R JPBAA7 46,95,1938


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 450 ppm/7 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain PHTOEH 89,6,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 900 ppm/13 week- intermittent Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function PHTOEH 89,6,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 900 ppm/4 week- intermittent Ear: Change in acuity PHTOEH 89,6,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/6 hour/8 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)
FCTOD7 41,415,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8,993 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function ARTODN 79,346,2005


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 100 ppm;short term exposure limit 150 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 71,1189,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 71,1189,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 71,1189,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 47,75,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,470,2005


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 100 ppm (440 mg/m3) (skin) DTLVS* 3,281,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 100 ppm (435 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 100 ppm (435 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 100 ppm (435 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 100 ppm (435 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 80 ppm (350 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 150 ppm (655 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 50 ppm (221 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM short term exposure limit 100 ppm (442 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 25 ppm (109 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 221 mg/m3 (50 ppm);
short term exposure limit 442 mg/m3 (skin), FEB 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 50 ppm (221 mg/m3), VLE 100 ppm (442 mg/m3), Skin, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 440 mg/m3 (100 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 221 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 442 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 50 ppm (217 mg/m3), APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 100 ppm (435 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 150 ppm (655 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 50 ppm (217 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 100 ppm (450 mg/m3), Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 100 ppm (435 mg/m3),KZG- week 200 ppm (870 mg/m3),Skin, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 50 ppm (220 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 100 ppm (skin), 2005


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO p-XYLENE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 100 ppm;
short term exposure limit 150 ppm
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: M1028;
Number of Industries 4;
Total Number of Facilities 62;
Number of Occupations 10;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 1,912
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: M1028;
Number of Industries 22;
Total Number of Facilities 1,994;
Number of Occupations 21;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 20,366;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 6,336


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULE FEREAC 47,26992,82
Used in pharmaceutical and insecticide systhesis and in production of polyester
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #1002


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

36YFAG "Biological Reactive Intermediates, Formation, Toxicity and Inactivation, Proceedings of the International Conference, Turku, Finland, 1975," Jollow, D.J., et al., eds., New York, Plenum Pub. Corp., 1977
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
APTOD9 Abstracts of Papers, Society of Toxicology. Annual Meetings. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802)
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
ATSUDG Archives of Toxicology, Supplement. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) No.1- 1978-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
JPBAA7 Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology. (London, UK) V.1-96, 1892-1968. For publisher information, see JPTLAS.
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
PHTOEH Pharmacology and Toxicology (Copenhagen). (Munksgaard International Pub., POB 2148, DK-1016 Copenhagen K, Denmark) V.60- 1987-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VCVGH* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogenproisvodnie uglevodorodov". (Hazardous substances: Galogenated hydrocarbons) Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1990.

Used in pharmaceutical and insecticide systhesis and in production of polyester

Top 50 chemical production: 5.66 billions lbs in 1992, 5.35 billions in 1991

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Reproductive Effector

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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