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Toluene, p - nitro -

RTECS #: XT3325000

CAS #: 99-99-0


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 137.15 MF: C7H7NO2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 1 - Methyl - 4 - nitrobenzene
  2. 4 - Methylnitrobenzene
  3. 4 - Nitrotoluene
  4. 4 - Nitrotoluol
  5. Benzene, 1 - methyl - 4 - nitro - (9CI)
  6. NCI - C60537
  1. Nitrotoluene, para -
  2. PNT
  3. p - Methylnitrobenzene
  4. p - Nitrotoluene
  5. p - Nitrotoluene (ACGIH:OSHA)
  6. para - Nitrotoluol


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 500 mg/L EMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
DNA damage rat testis 0.32 mol/L EMMUEG 44,179,2004
DNA repair Bacillus subtilis 5 mg/disc MUREAV 170,11,1986
unscheduled DNA synthesis rat liver 100 g/L EMMUEG 26,147,1995
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 10 g/plate (+/-enzymatic activation step) ENMUDM 4,163,1982
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 200 mg/L EMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina JTEHD6 36,13,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 65,793 mg/kg (13 week male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
NTPTR* NIH-93-3346


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 507,150 mg/kg/105 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
NTIS** NIH No. 01-4432
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 438 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
TXCYAC 183,221,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 80,850 mg/kg/105 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
NTIS** NIH No. 01-4432
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 91,875 mg/kg/105 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Other reproductive system tumors
NTIS** NIH No. 01-4432
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 91.3 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Other reproductive system tumors
TXCYAC 183,221,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 109.5 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
TXCYAC 183,221,2003


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 419 mg/m3 Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia
GTPZAB 22(7),52,1978
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 975 mg/m3 Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia
GTPZAB 22(7),52,1978
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 940 mg/kg Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
GISAAA 24(9),15,1959
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,231 mg/kg N/R NTIS** PB214-270
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,960 mg/kg N/R GTPZAB 25(8),50,1981
oral
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,750 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia
GTPZAB 22(7),52,1978
skin
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >16 gm/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
GISAAA 24(9),15,1959


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 73,983 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* NIH-93-3346
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8,400 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
DCTODJ 17,317,1994
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 16,800 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TXCYAC 183,221,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 33,600 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TXCYAC 183,221,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8,400 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* IMM-8703
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8,400 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
NTPTR* IMM-8703
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8,400 mg/kg/2 week- continuous Liver: Other changes CRNGDP 26,689,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 65,793 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
NTPTR* NIH-93-3346
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40,425 mg/kg/105 week- continuous Blood: Leukemia

Tumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent
NTIS** NIHNo.01-4432
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 176,400 mg/kg/105 week- continuous Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors

Tumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent
NTIS** NIHNo.01-4432
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 194,775 mg/kg/105 week- continuous Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent
NTIS** NIHNo.01-4432
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,000 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TXCYAC 183,221,2003


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 2 ppm (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 65,409,1996
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 65,409,1996
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 65,409,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 588,88,2005


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 2 ppm (11 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 2 ppm (11 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 2 ppm (12 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 28 mg/m3 (5 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 10 ppm (60 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 2 ppm (11 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 1 ppm (5.5 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 3 mg/m4, MAC(short term exposure limit) 9 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 1 ppm (6 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 2 ppm (11 mg/m3), Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 2 ppm (11 mg/m3),KZG- week 4 ppm (22 mg/m3), Skin,DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

time-weighted average 2 ppm (skin)
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
time-weighted average 2 ppm (skin)


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO p-NITROTOLUENE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 2 ppm (Sk) NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: X6955;
Number of Industries 1;
Total Number of Facilities 21;
Number of Occupations 5;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 4,354;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 729


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in manufacture of agriculture and rubber chemicals and in various dyes
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);equivocal evidence:rat
NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-23, October 2000
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; test completed (peer review), October 2000


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
DCTODJ Drug and Chemical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.1- 1977/78-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-

Used in manufacture of agriculture and rubber chemicals and in various dyes

NIOSH PROFILE (NITROTOLUENES), SRC, 10/77

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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