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Toluene, alpha - chloro -

RTECS #: XS8925000

CAS #: 100-44-7


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 126.59 MF: C7H7Cl


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Benzene, (chloromethyl) -
  2. Benzile (cloruro di) (Italian)
  3. Benzyl chloride
  4. Benzyl chloride (ACGIH:OSHA)
  5. Benzylchlorid (German)
  6. Benzyle (chlorure de) (French)
  7. Chloromethylbenzene
  8. Chlorophenylmethane
  1. Chlorure de benzyle (French)
  2. NCI - C06360
  3. RCRA waste number P028
  4. Tolyl chloride
  5. alpha - Chlorotoluene
  6. alpha - Chlortoluol (German)
  7. omega - Chlorotoluene


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis rat other cell types 120 µmol/L PMRSDJ 4,247,1982
DNA damage human fibroblast 1 mmol/L MUREAV 145,209,1985
DNA damage human other cell types 1 mmol/L MUREAV 145,209,1985
DNA damage mouse lymphocyte 393 µmol/L MUREAV 203,155,1988
DNA repair Bacillus subtilis 79,200 nmol/disc MUREAV 58,143,1978
DNA repair Escherichia coli 10 mg/L JJIND8 62,873,1979
unscheduled DNA synthesis human HeLa cell 50 µmol/L CALEDQ 20,263,1983
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 6,300 nmol/plate (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 58,143,1978
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 7,900 nmol/plate (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 58,143,1978
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 666 µg/plate (-enzymatic activation step) ENMUDM 9(Suppl 9),1,1987
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 28 mg/L/2 hour (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 578,210,2005
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 50 mg/L/2 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 578,210,2005
micronucleus test hamster embryo 1 µmol/L MUREAV 203,397,1988
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 400 ppm JJIND8 62,901,1979
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 8 mg/L EMMUEG 11,91,1988
morphological transform hamster embryo 1,600 µg/L CRNGDP 1,323,1980
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 100 µmol/L JJATDK 3,203,1983


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg (5 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) MUREAV 100,345,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) JTEHD6 17,51,1986
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 11 µg/kg (1-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death GISAAA 44(3),11,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,000 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
VCVGK* -,40,1994
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,500 mg/kg (5 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) MUREAV 100,345,1982


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 31 gm/kg/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Vascular: Tumors

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
JJIND8 76,1231,1986
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
FCTXAV 6,576,1968
subcutaneous
rat
toxic dose : 2,100 mg/kg/53 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ZEKBAI 74,241,1970
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 9,200 mg/kg/50 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
GANNA2 72,655,1981


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published lethal concentration: 400 ppm/8 hour Eye: Corneal damage

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough
NTIS** OTS0572390
inhalation
cat
lowest published toxic concentration: 200 mg/m3/8 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough VCVGK* -,40,1984
inhalation
cat
lowest published lethal concentration: 2,000 mg/m3 Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
VCVGK* -,40,1984
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 160 mg/m3 Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Lacrimation

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation
VCVGK* -,40,1984
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 mg/m3/10S Eye: Lacrimation

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation
VCVGK* -,40,1984
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 mg/m3 Olfaction: Other olfaction effects VCVGK* -,40,1984
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 390 mg/m3 N/R GTPZAB 30(3),6,1986
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 80 ppm/2 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression IMEMDT 11,217,1976
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 390 mg/m3/2 hour N/R VCVGK* -,39,1984
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 5 ppm/6 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression TOLED5 9,137,1981
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 0.39 gm/m3 N/R TPKVAL 9,27,1967
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 150 ppm/2 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression IMEMDT 11,217,1976
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 740 mg/m3/2 hour N/R VCVGK* -,39,1984
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 0.74 gm/m3 N/R TPKVAL 9,27,1967
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg Liver: Other changes VCVGK* -,39,1984
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,500 mg/kg N/R GISAAA 40(1),92,1975
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,500 mg/kg N/R 85GMAT -,25,1982
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,231 mg/kg N/R NTIS** PB214-270
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
AECTCV 18,670,1989
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 gm/kg N/R ZEKBAI 74,241,1970
skin
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 10 mL/kg N/R NTIS** OTS0572390
unreported route
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 780 mg/kg N/R GISAAA 44(3),11,1979
unreported route
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 625 mg/kg N/R GISAAA 44(3),11,1979


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published toxic concentration: 480 mg/m3/6 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,40,1994
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 46 ppm/6 hour/14 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects JJATDK 15,207,1995
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 480 mg/m3/6 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects VCVGK* -,40,1994
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7,800 mg/kg/26 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes JJIND8 76,1231,1986
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,836 mg/kg/26 week- intermittent Cardiac: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Necrotic changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JJIND8 76,1231,1986
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/8 day- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTEHD6 10,837,1982


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 1 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed animal carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 29,49,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 71,453,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Limited Evidence IMEMDT 71,453,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 29,49,1982
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,347,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 626,135,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 672,10,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 672,17,2009


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,24,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 1 ppm (5.2 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 0.2 mg/m3, JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 1 ppm (5.3 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK ceiling concentration 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 3 ppm (15 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 2 ppm (11 mg/m3), continuous2 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 1 ppm (5.2 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND time-weighted average 3 mg/m3, CEILING 5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 0.5 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 2 ppm (11 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.2 mg/m3, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 0.5 ppm (2.6 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 1.5 ppm, 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Confirmed animal carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Confirmed animal carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO BENZYL CHLORIDE-air ceiling concentration 1 ppm/15 minute NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 11600;
Number of Industries 5;
Total Number of Facilities 172;
Number of Occupations 10;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 30,504
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 11600;
Number of Industries 29;
Total Number of Facilities 1,877;
Number of Occupations 25;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 41,075;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 8,440


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: SHE-clonal assay; B subtilis rec assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: E coli polA without S9; E coli polA with S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro UDS-human fibroblast; S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/limited: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Host-mediated assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: CHO gene mutation
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULE FEREAC 47,26992,82
Used as an intermediate and as an irritant gas in chemical warfare
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0892-9001;8EHQ-0892-8910
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, halogenated, 1003
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);clear evidence:mouse JJIND8 76,1231,1986
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);inadequate:rat JJIND8 76,1231,1986


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85GMAT "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982
AECTCV Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 070944) V.1- 1973-
CALEDQ Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
FCTXAV Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. (London, UK) V.1-19, 1963-81. For publisher information, see FCTOD7.
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
GANNA2 Gann. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research. (Tokyo, Japan) V.1-75, 1907-84. For publisher information, see JJCREP.
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
JJIND8 JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.61-79, 1978-87. For publisher information, see JNCIEQ.
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
PMRSDJ Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1981-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TPKVAL Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. (Izdatel'stvo Meditsina, Moscow, USSR) No.1- 1961-
VCVGK* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia". (Hazardous substances. Galogen and oxygen containing substances), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1994.
ZEKBAI Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung. (Berlin, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-75, 1903-71. For publisher information, see JCROD7.

Used as an intermediate and as an irritant gas in chemical warfare

NIOSH PROFILE (BENZYL CHLORIDE), SRC, 10/77

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data

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