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Toluene

RTECS #: XS5250000

CAS #: 108-88-3


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 92.15 MF: C7H8


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Antisal 1a
  2. Benzene, methyl -
  3. CP 25
  4. Methacide
  5. Methane, phenyl -
  6. Methylbenzene
  7. Methylbenzol
  8. NCI - C07272
  9. Phenylmethane
  1. RCRA waste number U220
  2. Tolu - Sol
  3. Tolueen (Dutch)
  4. Toluen (Czech)
  5. Toluene (ACGIH:OSHA)
  6. Tolueno (Spanish)
  7. Toluol
  8. Toluolo (Italian)


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
human
300 ppm N/R JIHTAB 25,282,1943
eye
rabbit
870 g mild UCDS** 7/23/1970
eye
rabbit
2 mg/24 hour severe 85JCAE -,29,1986
eye
rabbit
100 mg/30S rinse mild FCTOD7 20,573,1982
skin
pig
250 L/24 hour mild TXCYAC 161,1,2001
skin
rabbit
435 mg mild UCDS** 7/23/1970
skin
rabbit
500 mg moderate FCTOD7 20,563,1982
skin
rabbit
20 mg/24 hour moderate 85JCAE -,29,1986


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
rat
5,400 g/m3/16 week- intermittent GTPZAB 25(7),33,1981
cytogenetic analysis subcutaneous
rat
9,600 mg/kg/12 day- intermittent GISAAA 37(10),36,1972
DNA damage rat liver 30 mol/L SinJF# 26OCT1982
unscheduled DNA synthesis Escherichia coli 1 pph JOBAAY 137,397,1979
unscheduled DNA synthesis other microorganisms 1 pph/15 minute- continuous JOVIAM 12,1195,1973
micronucleus test oral
mouse
200 mg/kg MUREAV 147,294,1985
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
433 g/kg/24 hour ARTODN 58,106,1985
other mutation test systems inhalation
grasshopper
20 pph/16 hour MUREAV 113,467,1983
sister chromatid exchange inhalation
human
252 g/L/19 year MUREAV 519,171,2002
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction oral
Drosophila melanogaster
1 pph CONAEL 1,35,1985
specific locus test mouse liver 2,442 mol/L MUREAV 608,29,2006


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
hamster
lowest published toxic concentration: 800 mg/m3/6 hour (6-11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral BJMRDK 23,533,1990
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 mg/m3/24 hour (6-13 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TXCYAC 11,55,1978
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/6 hour (2-17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system TJEMDR 7,265,1982
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/7 hour (7-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
FAATDF 6,145,1986
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm/7 hour (7-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system FAATDF 6,145,1986
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 mg/m3/24 hour (1-8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TXCYAC 11,55,1978
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 mg/m3/24 hour (7-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system FMORAO 28,286,1980
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 ppm/6 hour (7-17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
JTSCDR 20,109,1995
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 800 mg/m3/6 hour (14-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
BJMRDK 23,533,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,200 ppm/6 hour (9-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects ARTODN 71,258,1997
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 6,000 mg/m3 (4 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
VCVGH* -,145,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 6,000 mg/m3 (21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
VCVGH* -,145,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,800 ppm (7-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
ARTODN 75,103,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 ppm (multigeneration) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
REPTED 17,649,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 12,000 ppm (8-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 27,105,2005
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 ppm (7-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system NETEEC 27,153,2005
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 ppm (7-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) PHTOEH 92,148,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 ppm (6-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) JAPTO* 27,32,2007
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 ppm (7-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
BCLPT* 94,169,2004
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 ppm (7-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) PHTOEH 92,148,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 12,000 ppm (8-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) NETEEC 29,236,2007
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 8,000 ppm (8-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral NETEEC 29,236,2007
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 gm/m3/24 hour (7-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion ATSUDG 8,425,1985
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 100 ppm/6 hour (6-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system ARTODN 66,373,1992
multiple
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,500 ppm (7-20 day pregnant) Behavioral: Straub Tail PHTOEH 92,148,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 9 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death TJADAB 19,41A,1979
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 15 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TJADAB 19,41A,1979
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 30 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue) TJADAB 19,41A,1979
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8,700 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue) VCVGH* -,145,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,280 mg/kg (6-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) PEREBL 36,811,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9,100 mg/kg (6-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
REPTED 12,119,1998
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mL/kg (6-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical PEREBL 47,362,2000


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published lethal concentration: 1,600 ppm Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Irritability
JIDHAN 10,261,1928
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Antipsychotic

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above
JAMAAP 123,1106,1943
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 825 mg/m3/6 hour Olfaction: Change in sensation of smell

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Behavioral: Headache
VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 750 mg/m3/8 hour Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Behavioral: Wakefulness

Behavioral: Headache
VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,125 mg/m3/8 hour Behavioral: Ataxia VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 mg/m3/8 hour Eye: Lacrimation

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Behavioral: Ataxia
VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,875 mg/m3/8 hour Behavioral: Ataxia

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,000 mg/m3/8 hour Behavioral: Wakefulness

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,625 mg/m3/8 hour Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Ataxia
VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 15,000 mg/m3/1 hour Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Ataxia
VCVGH* -,145,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 37,500 mg/m3 Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGH* -,145,1990
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 30 gm/m3 N/R GTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
WEHRBJ 9,131,1972
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition TOLED5 129,65,2002
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 400 ppm/24 hour N/R NRTXDN 2,567,1981
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 30,000 mg/m3/2 hour N/R VCVGH* -,143,1990
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 19,900 mg/m3/7 hour N/R VCVGH* -,143,1990
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 10,000 mg/m3 Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity) VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation
mouse
lowest published lethal concentration: 30,000 mg/m3 N/R VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/30 minute Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving segmental distribution TXAPA9 193,9,2003
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,746 ppm/30 minute Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving segmental distribution

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
TXAPA9 193,9,2003
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 4,000 ppm/30 minute Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving segmental distribution

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
TXAPA9 193,9,2003
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 49 gm/m3/4 hour N/R GTPZAB 32(10),23,1988
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/6 hour Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Autonomic Nervous System: Other (direct) parasympathomimetic

Autonomic Nervous System: Parasympatholytic
NETEEC 22,603,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 mL/kg/2 hour Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
VCVGH* -,143,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 mg/m3/4 hour Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Histamines (including liberation not immunochemical in origin)
VCVGH* -,143,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 4,000 mg/m3/1 hour Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity) VCVGH* -,143,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 ppm/2 hour Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning VCVGH* -,143,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 ppm Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP
TOXID9 72,180,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,350 ppm Behavioral: General anesthetic PBBHAU 74,997,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 ppm/20 minute Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes TOXID9 44,10,2005
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,333 ppm/7.5 hour Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) TOXID9 66,253,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 12,000 ppm/30 minute Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity) NETEEC 29,236,2007
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 8,000 ppm/30 minute Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes NETEEC 29,466,2007
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 4,000 ppm/20 minute Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
NETEEC 29,599,2007
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 mL/kg/2 hour Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
VCVGH* -,143,1990
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 45,000 ppm/3 minute Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 45,000 ppm/9 minute Eye: Miosis (pupilliary constriction) VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 45,000 ppm/11 minute Ear: Tumors VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 45,000 ppm/15 minute Eye: Other eye effects VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 45,000 ppm/16 minute Behavioral: Tremor VCVGH* -,144,1990
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published lethal concentration: 45,000 ppm/40 minute N/R VCVGH* -,144,1990
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kg N/R NRTXDN 2,567,1981
intraperitoneal
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal dose: 1,750 mg/kg Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AJHYA2 7,276,1927
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 59 mg/kg N/R NRTXDN 2,567,1981
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold TOLED5 160,179,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg Behavioral: Anticonvulsant

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
TOLED5 160,179,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,332 mg/kg N/R ENVRAL 40,411,1986
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 2.5 mL/kg N/R PNSCC* 16,162,1992
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) NEROEW 28,1440,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia
PSCHDL 176,435,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOLED5 157,151,2005
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests NETEEC 27,883,2005
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes TOLED5 157,151,2005
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,960 mg/kg N/R MELAAD 54,486,1963
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 130 mg/kg N/R HAEMAX 58,491,1973
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kg N/R YAKUD5 22,883,1980
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 gm/kg N/R GTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 719 L/kg Cardiac: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Liver: Other changes
FSINDR 41,255,1989
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,000 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Ataxia
VCVGH* -,143,1990
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 636 mg/kg N/R NRTXDN 2,567,1981
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP TOXID9 44,428,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase
TOXID9 44,428,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Cardiac: Change in rate

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase
NETEEC 29,228,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,200 mg/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease NETEEC 29,228,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,000 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) TOXID9 -,240,2008
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
JTEHD6 25,87,1988
subcutaneous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 920 mg/kg Autonomic Nervous System: Other (direct) parasympathomimetic

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
AEPPAE 130,250,1928
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,250 mg/kg N/R NRTXDN 8,237,1987
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 14,100 L/kg N/R AIHAAP 30,470,1969
unreported route
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2 gm/kg N/R GISAAA 45(12),64,1980
unreported route
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6,900 mg/kg N/R GISAAA 45(12),64,1980


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 12,000 ppm/10 minute/8 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 61,302,1981
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,250 ppm/6 hour/14 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-371,1990
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/6 hour/20 day- intermittent Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
JTSCDR 2,363,1977
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 250 ppm/4 day- continuous Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Abuse
LIFSAK 72,3035,2003
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/3 week- intermittent Olfaction: Change in sensation of smell

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
TOLED5 165,57,2006
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/2 week- intermittent Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation TOLED5 165,57,2006
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 9 ppm/29 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Increased immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 222,17,2007
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/12 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes NRTXDN 28,168,2007
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 9 ppm/4 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes NRTXDN 28,957,2007
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 6,000 ppm/40 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning NETEEC 29,588,2007
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,600 ppm/20 hour/7 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AJHYA2 7,276,1927
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 12,000 ppm/10 minute/8 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 61,302,1981
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FAATDF 3,315,1983
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,500 ppm/6.5 hour/15 week- intermittent Cardiac: Changes in heart weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
NTPTR* NTP-TR-371,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 ppm/6 hour/26 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum
PHTOEH 68,384,1991
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 320 ppm/24 hour/30 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 45,123,1987
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 mg/m3/5 hour/21 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects BCTKAG 13,365,1980
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,200 ppm/8 hour/23 week- intermittent Behavioral: Ataxia

Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NETEEC 13,387,1991
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 6,000 ppm/2 hour/5 week- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) TXCYAC 139,193,1999
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6 hour/3 day- continuous Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS
TOLED5 5,393,1980
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 ppm/4 hour/7 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JTSCDR 25,223,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 ppm/7 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JTSCDR 25,223,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,895 ppm/30 minute/6 day- intermittent Behavioral: Abuse

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
EJPHAZ 477,45,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/16 week- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
PBBHAU 74,997,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/16 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS
TXCYAC 196,21,2004
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,600 ppm/11 day- intermittent Behavioral: Tolerance

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
TOXID9 78,61,2004
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 ppm/6 hour/14 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain PHTOEH 92,148,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 ppm/14 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain PHTOEH 92,148,2003
inhalation
rat
: 1,500 ppm/7 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain JAPTO* 27,32,2007
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 ppm/12 day- intermittent Endocrine: Other changes PHTOEH 92,148,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 8,000 ppm/13 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain NETEEC 29,236,2007
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 ppm/8 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
NETEEC 29,599,2007
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 4,000 ppm/3 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
NETEEC 29,599,2007
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 12,403,2008
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/4 hour/26 week- intermittent Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity GISAAA 32(9),105,1967
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 11,058 g/kg/30 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TIHEEC 9,479,1993
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 52 mL/kg/4 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NETEEC 26,195,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,548 ng/kg/3 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOLED5 144,55,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,000 mg/kg/6 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
TXAPA9 197,362,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,000 mg/kg/6 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes TOSCF2 95,443,2007
multiple
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,500 ppm/6 hour/14 day- intermittent Endocrine: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
PHTOEH 92,148,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 227 gm/kg/13 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
NTPTR* NTP-TR-371,1990
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,940 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
ENVRAL 49,93,1989
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8,400 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
DCTODJ 17,317,1994
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 95.2 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes IMMPH* 21,23,1991
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,134 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia IMMPH* 21,23,1991
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,268 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
IMMPH* 21,23,1991
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42,380 mg/kg/49 day- intermittent Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NETEEC 10,525,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 27,645 mg/kg/3 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TOXID9 5,62,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 162 gm/kg/13 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
NTPTR* NTP-TR-371,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,805 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function ARTODN 79,346,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10,500 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
NTOTDY 8,103,1986
skin
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 217 mg/kg/2 day- continuous Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation VCVGH* -,148,1990


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 20 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 47,79,1989
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal No Evidence IMEMDT 71,829,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 47,79,1989
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 71,829,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group3 IMEMDT 71,829,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,111,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 47,75,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CTOXAO 11(5),549,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JACTDZ 6(1),77,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TIHEEC 4,49,1988
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NTOTDY 3,407,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTCTDW 38,37,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,197,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 128,85,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 138,51,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 22,196,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,209,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,202,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AAPSJ* 8,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NETEEC 29,425,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 23,428,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 658,215,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,93,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 544,313,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,683,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,577,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 181,133,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 681,93,2009


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 100 ppm (375 mg/m3) (skin) DTLWS* 3,29,1973
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 200 ppm;
ceiling concentration 300;
peak concentration 500/10 minute
CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 200 ppm (750 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 200 ppm (750 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 200 ppm (750 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 50 ppm (191 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 150 ppm (574 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 50 ppm (192 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM short term exposure limit 100 ppm (384 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 25 ppm (94 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 192 mg/m3 (50 ppm);
short term exposure limit 384 mg/m3 (100 ppm), FEB 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 100 ppm (375 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 150 ppm, Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 100 ppm (375 mg/m3), VLE 150 ppm (550 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 190 mg/m3 (50 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 190 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 760 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 50 ppm (188 mg/m3), skin, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 100 ppm (375 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 150 ppm (560 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 50 ppm (188 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 150 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 50 ppm (188 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 25 ppm (94 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 100 ppm (375 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 100 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 350 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 50 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 150 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 100 ppm (400 mg/m3), Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 50 ppm (190 mg/m3),KZG- week 200 ppm (760 mg/m3), Skin, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 200 ppm, short term exposure limit 300 ppm, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 200 ppm (750 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 50 ppm (191 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 150 ppm (skin), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Not classifiable as human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Not classifiable as human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO TOLUENE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 100 ppm;
short term exposure limit 150 ppm
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 73300;
Number of Industries 412;
Total Number of Facilities 125,516;
Number of Occupations 206;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 1,589,482
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 73300;
Number of Industries 399;
Total Number of Facilities 128,510;
Number of Occupations 232;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 2,015,881;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 391,255


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/2000/108028)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; In vitro SCE-human
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: E coli polA without S9
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULE FEREAC 47,26992,82
Used as an industrial chemical, chemical intermediate, solvent and emulsifier
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Toluene in blood, 8002
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, BP 36-126 degree C, 1500
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, aromatic, 1501
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Toluene (passive), 4000
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (inhal);no evidence:mouse,rat
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #111


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85JCAE "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986
AAPSJ* AAPS pharmSci [electronic resource] (Alexandria, Va. : American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists) V.1-6 1999-2004, continued by AAPS journal
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AIHAAP American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. (AIHA, 475 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, OH 44311) V.19- 1958-
AJHYA2 American Journal of Hygiene. (Baltimore, MD) V.1-80, 1921-64. For publisher information, see AJEPAS.
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
ATSUDG Archives of Toxicology, Supplement. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) No.1- 1978-
BCLPT* Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology (Copenhagen, Denmark : Nordic Pharmacological Society Oxford, UK : Distributed by Blackwell Munksgaard) V.94- 2004-
BCTKAG Bromatologia i Chemia Toksykologiczna. (Ars Polona, POB 1001, 00-068 Warsaw 1, Poland) V.4- 1971-
BJMRDK Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. (Associacao Brasileira de Divulgacao Cientifica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, USP, 141000 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil) V.14- 1981-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CHHSA* Chemical Health & Safety (Orlando, FL : Published by Elsevier Inc. for the ACS Division of Chemical Health and Safety) V.1- 1994-
CONAEL Contaminacion Ambiental. (Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico City, Mexico) V.1- 1985-
CTOXAO Clinical Toxicology. (New York, NY) V.1-18, 1968-81. For publisher information, see JTCTDW.
DCTODJ Drug and Chemical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.1- 1977/78-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
DTLWS* "Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Substances in Workroom Air," Supplements. For publisher information, see 85INA8.
EJPHAZ European Journal of Pharmacology. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1967-
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
ENVRAL Environmental Research. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1967-
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
FMORAO Folia Morphologica (Prague). (Plenum Pub. Corp. 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.13- 1965-
FNSCA6 Forensic Science. (Lausanne, Switzerland) V.1-11, 1972-78. For pub lisher information, see FSINDR.
FSINDR Forensic Science International. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.12- 1978-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HAEMAX Haematologica. (Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore, Via Panama 48, I-00198, Rome, Italy) V.1- 1920-
HUTOX*
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
IMMPH* Immunopharmacology. (New York, Elsevier/North-Holland) V. 1-49, 1978-2000
JACTDZ Journal of the American College of Toxicology. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 1651 Third Ave., New York, NY 10128) V.1-12, 1982-1993. Discontinued.
JAMAAP JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association. (AMA, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610) V.1- 1883-
JAPTO* Journal of Applied Toxicology (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Oldlands Way Bognor Regis West Sussex, PO22 9SA England) V.1- 1981-
JIDHAN Journal of Industrial Hygiene. (Cambridge, MA) V.1-17, 1919-35. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
JIHTAB Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
JOBAAY Journal of Bacteriology. (American Soc. for Microbiology, 1913 I St., NW, Washington, DC 20006) V.1- 1916-
JOVIAM Journal of Virology. (American Soc. for Microbiology, 1913 I St., NW, Washington, DC 20006) V.1- 1967-
JTCTDW Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.19- 1982-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
JTSCDR Journal of Toxicological Sciences. (Japanese Soc. of Toxicological Sciences, 4th Floor, Gakkai Center Bldg., 4-16, Yayoi 2-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan) V.1- 1976-
LIFSAK Life Sciences. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1-8, 1962-69; V.14- 1974-
MELAAD Medicina del Lavoro. Industrial Medicine. (Via S. Barnaba, 8, 20122 Milan, Italy) V.16- 1925-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NEROEW Neuropsychopharmacology. (Elsevier Science, 655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10010) V.1- 1987-
NETEEC Neurotoxicology and Teratology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.9- 1987-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NRTXDN Neurotoxicology. (Intox Press, Inc., POB 34075, Little Rock, AR 72203) V.1- 1979-
NTOTDY Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. (Fayetteville, NY) V.3-8, 1981-86. For publisher information, see NETEEC.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
PBBHAU Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. (ANKHO International Inc., P.O. Box 426, Fayetteville, NY 13066) V.1- 1973-
PEREBL Pediatric Research. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1967-
PHTOEH Pharmacology and Toxicology (Copenhagen). (Munksgaard International Pub., POB 2148, DK-1016 Copenhagen K, Denmark) V.60- 1987-
PNSCC* Proceedings of the National Science Council, Republic of China. Part B, Life sciences. (Taipei, Taiwan : The Council) V.8- 1984-
PSCHDL Psychopharmacology (Berlin). (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.47- 1976-
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
SinJF# Personal Communication from J.F. Sina, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, West Point, PA 19486, Oct. 26, 1982
TIHEEC Toxicology and Industrial Health. (Princeton Scientific Pub. Co., POB 2155, Princeton, NJ 08540) V.1- 1985-
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TJEMDR Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine. (Tokai Univ. Press, Shinjuku Toka Bldg., 3-27-4 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160, Japan) V.1- 1976-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
UCDS** Union Carbide Data Sheet. (Union Carbide Corp., 39 Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817)
VCVGH* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogenproisvodnie uglevodorodov". (Hazardous substances: Galogenated hydrocarbons) Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1990.
WEHRBJ Work, Environment, Health. (Helsinki, Finland) V.1-11, 1962-74. For publisher information, see SWEHDO.
YAKUD5 Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. (Yakugyo Jihosha, Inaoka Bldg., 2-36 Jinbo-cho, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan) V.1- 1959-

Used as an industrial chemical, chemical intermediate, solvent and emulsifier

Top 50 chemical production: 6.03 billions lbs in 1992, 6.30 billions in 1991

NIOSH PROFILE (PAINT AND ALLIED PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (SPRAY PAINTING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (PAINT AND ALLIED PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING), SRI, 2/7

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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