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Titanium oxide

RTECS #: XR2275000

CAS #: 13463-67-7


UPDATE: February 2009 MW: 79.90 MF: O2Ti


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 1700 White
  2. A - Fil Cream
  3. Atlas white titanium dioxide
  4. Austiox R - CR 3
  5. Bayertitan
  6. Baytitan
  7. Brookite
  8. C - Weiss 7 (German)
  9. C.I. 77891
  10. C.I. Pigment White 6
  11. Calcotone White T
  12. Cosmetic White C47 - 5175
  13. Cosmetic White C47 - 9623
  14. E 171
  15. Flamenco
  16. Hombitan
  17. Horse Head A - 410
  18. Horse Head A - 420
  19. Horse Head R - 710
  20. KH 360
  21. Kronos
  22. Kronos titanium dioxide
  23. Levanox White RKB
  24. NCI - C04240
  25. Pigment White 6
  26. Rayox
  27. Runa RH20
  1. Rutiox CR
  2. Ti - Pure
  3. Tichlor
  4. Tiofine
  5. Tiona T.D.
  6. Tioxide
  7. Tipaque
  8. Titafrance
  9. Titan White
  10. Titandioxid (Swedish)
  11. Titanium dioxide
  12. Titanium dioxide (ACGIH:OSHA)
  13. Titanium peroxide
  14. Titanox
  15. Titanox 2010
  16. Trioxide (S)
  17. Tronox
  18. Unitane
  19. Unitane O - 110
  20. Unitane O - 220
  21. Unitane OR - 150
  22. Unitane OR - 340
  23. Unitane OR - 342
  24. Unitane OR - 350
  25. Unitane OR - 540
  26. Unitane OR - 640
  27. Zopaque


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
skin
human
300 g/3 day- intermittent mild 85DKA8 -,127,1977


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
DNA damage human lung 100 g/plate EMS37* -,444,2006
DNA inhibition hamster lung 500 mg/L TIVIEQ 1,71,1987
micronucleus test hamster ovary 5 mol/L MUREAV 414,15,1998
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
3 gm/kg/3 day- continuous EMMUEG 21,160,1993
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 1 mol/L MUREAV 414,15,1998


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 250 mg/m3/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
TXAPA9 79,179,1985
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 10 mg/m3/18 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
INHTE5 7,533,1995
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 360 mg/kg/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
NCIUS* PH43-64-886
intramuscular
rat
toxic dose : 260 mg/kg/84 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
NCIUS* PH43-64-886


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 44,213,2005
intratracheal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains TOLED5 142,71,2003
intratracheal
rat
lethal dose : >100 g/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
INHEAO 35,61,1997
intratracheal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.25 mg/kg Vascular: Regional or general arteriolar constriction

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TOXID9 44,294,2005
intratracheal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.6 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes TOXID9 66,118,2002
intratracheal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 66,353,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 gm/kg Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
EPASR* #86940001000,1994


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
hamster
lowest published toxic concentration: 250 mg/m3/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi TOXID9 54,13,2000
inhalation
hamster
lowest published toxic concentration: 250 mg/m3/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOSCF2 70,86,2002
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi INHTE5 12(Suppl 3),275,2000
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 78,382,2004
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 60,195,2001
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOSCF2 70,86,2002
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 250 mg/m3/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOSCF2 70,86,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 250 mg/m3/6 hour/4 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TXAPA9 145,10,1997
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi TOXID9 54,13,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 78,382,2004
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 60,195,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOSCF2 70,86,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 250 mg/m3/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOSCF2 70,86,2002


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 47,307,1989
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 47,307,1989
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 47,307,1989
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 133,17,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,223,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,194,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 171,99,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HBTME* ,861,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HBTME* ,177,2007


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD NUISANCE PARTICULATES DTLWS* 3,29,1973
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 15 mg/m3, total dust CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, respirable fraction CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 15 mg/m3, total dust CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 15 mg/m3, total dust CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 15 mg/m3 CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 15 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 6 mg(Ti)/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 10 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 1.5 mg/m3 (respirable), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 1 mg/m3 (respirable), 4 mg/m3 (total), APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 10 mg(Ti)/m3;
short term exposure limit 20 mg(Ti)/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 10 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (inspirable dust), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 10 mg(Ti)/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 30 mg(Ti)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 5 mg/m3 (total dust), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 3 mg/m3, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 15 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (inhalable), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 4 mg/m3 (respirable), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Not classifiable as human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Not classifiable as human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE-air Carcinogen lowest feasible concentration NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: M0913;
Number of Industries 112;
Total Number of Facilities 8,751;
Number of Occupations 78;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 117,618
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: M0913;
Number of Industries 425;
Total Number of Facilities 167,223;
Number of Occupations 246;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 2,749,569;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 540,849


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; Cell transform.-SA7/SHE
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as pigment for paint, also used in paper and cardboard manufacture
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Elements by ICP, 7300
NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (feed);no evidence:mouse,rat NCITR* NCI-TR-97,1979


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85DKA8 "Cutaneous Toxicity, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference, 1976," Drill, V.A., and P. Lazar, eds., New York, Academic Press, Inc. 1977
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
DTLWS* "Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Substances in Workroom Air," Supplements. For publisher information, see 85INA8.
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
EMS37*
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
EPASR* United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M St., SW, Washington, DC 20460) History unknown.
HBTME*
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
INHEAO Industrial Health. (National Institute of Industrial Health, 6-21-1 Nagao, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, 213 Japan) V.1- 1963-
INHTE5 Inhalation Toxicology. (Published by Taylor & Francis Health, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE) V.1- 1989-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NCITR* National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series. (Bethesda, MD) No.0-205. For publisher information, see NTPTR*.
NCIUS* Progress Report for Contract No. PH-43-64-886, Submitted to the National Cancer Institute by The Institute of Chemical Biology, University of San Francisco. (San Francisco, CA 94117)
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
TIVIEQ Toxicology In Vitro. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-

Used as pigment for paint, also used in paper and cardboard manufacture

Top 50 chemical production: 2.53 billions lbs in 1992, 2.19 billions in 1991

NIOSH PROFILE (TITANIUM AND ITS COMPOUNDS), SRC, 4/78

FDA-over the counter drug

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

ALT CAS #: 1309-63-3
Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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