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Sulfuric acid, dimethyl ester

RTECS #: WS8225000

CAS #: 77-78-1


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 126.14 MF: C2H6O4S


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. DMS (methyl sulfate)
  2. Dimethyl monosulfate
  3. Dimethyl sulfate
  4. Dimethyl sulfate (ACGIH:OSHA)
  5. Dimethyl sulphate
  6. Dimethylester kyseliny sirove (Czech)
  7. Dimethylsulfaat (Dutch)
  8. Dimethylsulfat (Czech)
  1. Dimetilsolfato (Italian)
  2. Dwumetylowy siarczan (Polish)
  3. Methyl sulfate
  4. Methyle (sulfate de) (French)
  5. RCRA waste number U103
  6. Sulfate de methyle (French)
  7. Sulfate dimethylique (French)


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
100 mg/4S rinse severe FCTOD7 20,573,1982
eye
rabbit
50 µg/24 hour severe 85JCAE -,1079,1986
skin
rabbit
10 mg/24 hour open irritation test severe AMIHBC 4,119,1951


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
body fluid assay rat
ovary
300 mg/kg MUREAV 143,263,1985
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 50 µmol/L CRNGDP 3,385,1982
cytogenetic analysis unreported route
human
2 mg/m3 MUREAV 147,301,1985
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
mouse
240 µg/m3/10 week GTPZAB 30(9),38,1986
cytogenetic analysis mouse Ascites tumor 10 mmol/L BIZNAT 88,49,1970
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
rat
350 mg/kg NASLDX 3,187,1980
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
rat
290 µg/m3/16 week GTPZAB 30(9),38,1986
DNA adduct Escherichia coli 5 µmol/L MUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA adduct human HeLa cell 5 µmol/L MUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA adduct mouse Ascites tumor 5 µmol/L MUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA adduct intraperitoneal
mouse
30 mg/kg CALEDQ 146,155,1999
DNA adduct inhalation
rat
0.1 ppm/6 hour INHTE5 16,581,2004
DNA damage Bacillus subtilis 130 mmol/L MUREAV 9,141,1970
DNA damage hamster lung 800 µmol/L/1 hour- continuous CRNGDP 1,795,1980
DNA damage human lymphocyte 1 mmol/L JACTDZ 1(3),125,1982
DNA damage human fibroblast 100 µmol/L CRNGDP 4,559,1983
DNA damage inhalation
mouse
20 µg/kg PCBPBS 6,101,1976
DNA damage intraperitoneal
mouse
100 mg/kg MUREAV 467,83,2000
DNA damage other microorganisms 100 mmol/L CBINA8 14,101,1976
DNA damage other microorganisms 200 mg/L CBINA8 13,151,1976
DNA damage intravenous
rat
80 mg/kg MUREAV 75,63,1980
DNA damage rat liver 30 µmol/L MUREAV 189,69,1987
DNA damage rat liver 100 µmol/L/3 hour MUREAV 629,49,2007
DNA damage Saccharomyes cerevisiae 13.3 mg/L/17 hour MUREAV 633,80,2007
DNA inhibition human HeLa cell 2 mmol/L MUREAV 92,427,1982
DNA inhibition human fibroblast 75 µmol/L CRNGDP 4,559,1983
DNA inhibition oral
mouse
20 gm/kg ARGEAR 51,605,1981
DNA inhibition intraperitoneal
mouse
100 mg/kg MUREAV 46,305,1977
DNA repair Escherichia coli 331 µmol/L MUREAV 272,145,1992
DNA repair other microorganisms 640 µg/plate BIZNAT 95,463,1976
unscheduled DNA synthesis hamster lung 40 mg/L CBINA8 15,117,1976
unscheduled DNA synthesis human lymphocyte 10 µmol/L CRNGDP 13,1285,1992
unscheduled DNA synthesis human fibroblast 50 µmol/L CRNGDP 4,559,1983
unscheduled DNA synthesis human HeLa cell 400 µmol/L MUREAV 139,155,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis rat liver 100 µmol/L ENMUDM 3,11,1981
host-mediated assay mouse
Salmonella typhimurium
2,500 µmol/kg CBINA8 19,241,1977
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 20 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step) ARTODN 46,277,1980
mutation in microorganisms Neurospora crassa 1,000 ppm/13 minute (-enzymatic activation step) GENTAE 67,189,1971
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 1,000 ppm/13 minute (-enzymatic activation step) GENTAE 67,189,1971
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 250 ppm (-enzymatic activation step) SOGEBZ 8,412,1972
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 2 mmol/L (-enzymatic activation step) HEREAY 46,279,1960
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 10 µmol/plate (+enzymatic activation step) CBINA8 19,241,1977
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 4,300 nmol/L/1 hour (-enzymatic activation step) PNASA6 75,4465,1978
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 500 ppm/12 minute (-enzymatic activation step) GENTAE 78,1101,1974
mutation in microorganisms Schizosaccharomyces pombe 590 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step) CBINA8 14,195,1976
micronucleus test hamster ovary 58.5 mg/L/24 hour MUREAV 633,80,2007
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
12,500 µg/kg/48 hour- intermittent MUREAV 389,3,1997
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 1,900 µmol/L SOGEBZ 17,915,1981
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster ovary 20 µmol/L MUREAV 57,217,1978
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster lung 1 mg/L/1 hour CRNGDP 1,175,1980
other mutation test systems Escherichia coli 2 nmol/tube PNASA6 79,5971,1982
other mutation test systems other microorganisms 100 mmol/L CBINA8 14,101,1976
other mutation test systems Salmonella typhimurium 38 mg/L MUREAV 192,239,1987
phage inhibition capacity Escherichia coli 65 mmol/L PRLBA4 150,497,1959
sister chromatid exchange hamster lung 10 µmol/L CRNGDP 3,385,1982
sister chromatid exchange human fibroblast 1 µmol/L MUREAV 75,63,1980
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction oral
Drosophila melanogaster
3,800 µmol/L NATUAS 203,1404,1964
specific locus test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
5 mmol/L MUREAV 182,243,1987


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg (15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death IARCCD 4,45,1973


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 17 mg/m3/19 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
ZEKBAI 74,241,1970
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg (15 day pregnant) Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
IARCCD 4,45,1973
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ZEKBAI 74,241,1970


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
guinea pig
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 32 ppm/1 hour N/R 85JCAE -,1079,1986
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 97 ppm/10 minute N/R 34ZIAG -,226,1969
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 280 mg/m3 Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
GTPZAB 23(3),28,1979
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 45 mg/m3/4 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis

Blood: Hemorrhage
GTPZAB 24(11),55,1980
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kg Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity AEXPBL 47,113,1902
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 140 mg/kg N/R GTPZAB 23(3),28,1979
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 205 mg/kg N/R GTPZAB 23(3),28,1979
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 45 mg/kg Behavioral: Food intake (animal) AEXPBL 47,113,1902
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kg N/R ZEKBAI 74,241,1970
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 53 mg/kg Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
AEXPBL 47,113,1902


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1.5 ppm/5 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain INHTE5 16,581,2004
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.7 ppm/2 week- intermittent Olfaction: Ulcerated nasal septum

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
INHTE5 16,581,2004


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed animal carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 4,271,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 71,575,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 4,271,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 71,575,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 2A IMEMDT 71,575,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
85CVA2 5,63,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FCTOD7 44,1699,2006


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) (skin) DTLVS* 3,92,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.52 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 0.1 mg/m3 (0.02 mL/m3) (production), JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 0.2 mg/m3 (0.04 mL/m3) (use and handling), JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.53 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 0.01 ppm (0.05 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND short term exposure limit 0.01 ppm (0.05 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 0.1 ppm (0.5 mg/m3), continuous2 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY ceiling concentration 0.1 mg/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 0.1 ppm (0.52 mg/m3), skin, 2A carcinogen, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.5 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.52 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.05 ppm (0.26 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 0.01 ppm (0.05 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 0.5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 1 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 0.1 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN Group B Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.02 ppm (0.1 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.5 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 0.05 ppm (0.26 mg/m3) (skin), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Confirmed animal carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Confirmed animal carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO DIMETHYL SULFATE-air Carcinogen;
8 hour time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (Sk)
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 26880;
Number of Industries 3;
Total Number of Facilities 83;
Number of Occupations 5;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 1,249
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 26880;
Number of Industries 5;
Total Number of Facilities 185;
Number of Occupations 23;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 10,481;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 2,455


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Aspergillus-forward mutation; Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro cytogenetics-nonhuman
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-whole sex chrom. loss
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-reciprocal translocation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Host-mediated assay; E coli polA without S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro SCE-nonhuman; D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae-reversion; S pombe-reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: In vitro SCE-human
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster-partial sex chrom. loss
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULE FEREAC 47,26992,82
Used as alkylating agent and as intermediate in SODIUM ACETYLIDE synthesis
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Dimethyl sulfate, 2524
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

34ZIAG "Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969
85CVA2 "Oncology 1970, Proceedings of the Tenth International Cancer Congress," Chicago, Year Book Medical Pub., 1971
85JCAE "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986
AEXPBL Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1-109, 1873-1925. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AMIHBC AMA Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. (Chicago, IL) V.2-10, 1950-54. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
ARGEAR Archiv fuer Geschwulstforschung. (VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit Neue Gruenstr. 18, Berlin DDR-1020, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1- 1949-
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
BIZNAT Biologisches Zentralblatt. (VEB Georg Thieme, Postfach 946, Leipzig DDR-7010, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1- 1881-
CALEDQ Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-
CBINA8 Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1969-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CHHSA* Chemical Health & Safety (Orlando, FL : Published by Elsevier Inc. for the ACS Division of Chemical Health and Safety) V.1- 1994-
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
GENTAE Genetics. (Genetics Business Office, POB 64025, Baltimore, MD 21264) V.1- 1916-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HEREAY Hereditas (Lund, Sweden). (Gjoerloffsgatan 121, S-261 34 Landskrona, Sweden) V.1- 1947-
IARCCD IARC Scientific Publications. (Geneva, Switzerland) No.1-26, 1971-78. For publisher information, see IAPUDO.
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
INHTE5 Inhalation Toxicology. (Published by Taylor & Francis Health, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE) V.1- 1989-
JACTDZ Journal of the American College of Toxicology. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 1651 Third Ave., New York, NY 10128) V.1-12, 1982-1993. Discontinued.
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NASLDX National Academy Science Letters (India). (National Academy of Sciences, India, 5-Lajpatrai Rd., Allahabad 211002, India) V.1- 1978-
NATUAS Nature. (Nature Subscription Dept., POB 1018, Manasguan, NJ 08736) V.1- 1869-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
PCBPBS Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1971-
PNASA6 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (National Academy of Sciences, Printing & Pub. Office, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20418) V.1- 1915-
PRLBA4 Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences. (Royal Soc., 6 Carlton House Terrace, London SW1Y 5AG, UK) V.76- 1905-
SOGEBZ Soviet Genetics. English translation of GNKAA5. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.2- 1966-
ZEKBAI Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung. (Berlin, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-75, 1903-71. For publisher information, see JCROD7.

Used as alkylating agent and as intermediate in SODIUM ACETYLIDE synthesis

NIOSH PROFILE (DIMETHYL SULFATE), SRC, 12/79

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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